Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

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Update Fall 2017

Health Effects Institute
October 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of HEI Update, read about the new ways HEI is making study data accessible; a literature review that HEI will soon initiate on the effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution; two new members of the HEI Review Committee; and a newly published summary of an HEI expert workshop on the effects of fuel composition on particulate matter emissions.

Particulate Air Pollutants, Brain Structure, and Neurocognitive Disorders in Older Women

Jiu-Chiuan Chen
Xinhui Wang
Marc Serre
Steven Cen
Meredith Franklin
Mark Espeland
October 2017
Research Report 193

Research Report 193 describes a novel study by Jiu-Chiuan Chen and colleagues examining possible associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and changes in the brains of older women in the United States. The study focused on brain volumes and neurocognitive outcomes, specifically mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Dr. Chen used neuroimaging and cognitive outcome data from women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and estimated their exposure to ambient PM2.5 and to diesel PM.

Update Summer 2017

Health Effects Institute
August 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of HEI Update, read about the Haagen-Smit Clean Air Leadership Award given to HEI President Dan Greenbaum by the California Air Resources Board, the two 2017 recipients of HEI’s Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, and the progress of HEI studies examining potential health effects at low levels of air pollution. Also in this issue is a recap of HEI’s recent Annual Conference in Alexandria, Virginia.

Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES): Part 1. Effects of Exposure to Low Concentrations of Ozone on Respiratory and Cardiovascular Outcomes

Mark W Frampton
John R Balmes
Philip A Bromberg
Paul Stark
Mehrdad Arjomandi
Milan J Hazucha
David Q Rich
Danielle Hollenbeck-Pringle
Nicholas Dagincourt
Neil Alexis
Peter Ganz
Wojciech Zareba
Maria G Costantini
June 2017
Research Report 192 Part 1

HEI Research Report 192 describes a multicenter study by John Balmes at the University of California–San Francisco, Phil Bromberg at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, and Mark Frampton at the University of Rochester, New York. The study was designed to test whether ozone has short-term cardiovascular effects at present-day ambient levels. It evaluated respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in 87 healthy participants (60 years old on average) who were exposed to 0, 70, or 120 ppb ozone for 3 hours while exercising moderately.

Update Spring 2017

Health Effects Institute
June 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of Update, read about HEI’s forthcoming publication of a major report, Multicenter Ozone Study in Older Subjects; the briefing of key legislators and stakeholders on HEI’s Accountability Research Program; and a forthcoming study examining potential links between air pollution and dementia in older women. This issue also highlights worldwide media coverage of HEI’s State of Global Air Report 2017.

Protective Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α after Ozone Inhalation

Allison D Fryer
David B Jacoby
Sarah A Wicher
March 2017
Research Report 191

Research Report 191 describes a study by Allison Fryer and colleagues that addressed how exposure to ozone affects the immune and physiological responses in guinea pigs. In her study, Dr. Fryer focused on eosinophils, white blood cells that play an important role in inflammation, allergies, and allergic asthma, and can modify the airway response to ozone inhalation. This study tested a novel hypothesis: that allergic guinea pigs react differently to ozone than normal animals because of newly formed eosinophils that migrate from bone marrow to the lungs.

Update Winter 2017

Health Effects Institute
February 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of Update, read about HEI’s new “State of Global Air” annual report and website and our upcoming Annual Conference in Alexandria, Virginia (see the preliminary program). Also read about the recipient of the 2016 Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, the appointment of a new member to HEI’s Board of Directors, and HEI "Communicating the Science” at meetings in the U.S. and abroad.

Annual Report

Health Effects Institute
January 2017
Annual Report

The 2016 Annual Report, Trusted Science for Decisions, describes HEI’s partnership with industry, government, scientists, and the environmental community to provide high-quality, impartial, and relevant science to inform public policy decisions about air quality and public health. Included is a description of HEI’s rigorous approach to science and the many ways diverse stakeholders in the United States and worldwide put the research findings to use.

The Effects of Policy-Driven Air Quality Improvements on Children’s Respiratory Health

Frank Gilliland
Edward L Avol
Rob McConnell
Kiros T Berhane
W James Gauderman
Fred W Lurmann
Robert Urman
Roger Chang
Edward B Rappaport
Stephen Howland
January 2017
Research Report 190

Research Report 190 describes a study by Frank Gilliland and colleagues that was funded under HEI’s Accountability research program. The investigators collected air quality data and lung function and respiratory symptoms in three cohorts of children who participated in the Children’s Health Study in Southern California. During the 20-year study period, nearly 20 major policy actions were implemented to reduce pollution from transportation and other sources. Gilliland and colleagues evaluated whether the improved air quality was associated with improved lung function and respiratory symptoms in these children.

Update Fall 2016

Health Effects Institute
October 2016
Newsletter

This issue of Update reports on a new study that explored the impact of Southern California air-quality regulations on children’s health; launch of the redesigned HEI Web site; new HEI Review Committee member Jennifer Peel; upcoming requests for applications; the sharing of HEI science at major Asian and European conferences; and HEI in the News.

Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Wuhan, China

Zhengmin Qian
Bin Zhang
Shengwen Liang
Jing Wang
Shaoping Yang
Ke Hu
Edwin Trevathan
Rong Yang
Qijie Li
Louise H Flick
Ronghua Hu
Zhen Huang
Yimin Zhang
Shixiang Hu
Jing Wang
Longjiao Shen
Yuan Lu
Hui Peng
Yuzhen Yu
Li Yang
Wei Chen
Wenjin Liu
Wei Zhang
September 2016
Research Report 189

HEI Research Report 189 describes a study by Dr. Zhengmin Qian conducted in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China. Wuhan experiences temperature extremes and generally has higher air pollution levels than those seen in the United States and Europe. Dr. Qian examined whether increased exposures to air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) during vulnerable pregnancy periods were associated with increased rates of preterm birth, low birth weight, or intrauterine growth retardation, using both a cohort and nested case-control design.

Burden of Disease Attributable to Coal-Burning and Other Air Pollution Sources in China

GBD MAPS Working Group
August 2016
Special Report 20

Special Report 20, Burden of Disease Attributable to Coal-Burning and Other Major Sources of Air Pollution in China, provides the first comprehensive assessment of the current and predicted burdens of disease attributable to coal-burning and other major sources of particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) in China at the national and provincial levels. It is the result of the Global Burden of Disease – Major Air Pollution Sources (GDB MAPS) project, an international collaboration of Tsinghua University, the Health Effects Institute, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), and the University of British Columbia. The analyses show that coal combustion is the single largest source of air pollution-related health impact, contributing to some 366,000 premature deaths in China in 2013, with industry and household combustion as major contributors as well. The report also indicates that health burdens could grow substantially by 2030 if no further action is taken. 燃煤和其他主要大气污染源所致的中国疾病负担 (Special Report 20 in Chinese)

 

燃煤和其他主要大气污染源所致的中国疾病负担

GBD MAPS 工作组
August 2016
专题报告20

专题报告20,燃煤和其他主要大气污染源所致的中国疾病负担。报告从国家与省级层面,对中国燃煤及其他主要空气污染源释放的细颗粒物(PM2.5)所造成当前及未来疾病负担进行了第一次综合评估。此项报告由清华大学、健康影响研究所、健康指标和评估研究所(IHME)与不列颠哥伦比亚大学联合发布,是全球疾病负担-主要空气污染源(GDB MAPS)这一国际合作项目的研究结果。分析表明,燃煤是造成空气污染、影响健康的最大元凶。2013年,仅燃煤一项在中国就导致约36.6万人过早死亡,其中以工业与民用燃煤影响最为重大。报告还指出,如不采取进一步行动,到2030年健康负担将会大幅增加。Burden of Disease Attributable to Coal-Burning and Other Air Pollution Sources in China (in English)

Adverse Reproductive Health Outcomes and Exposure to Gaseous and Particulate-Matter Air Pollution in Pregnant Women

Jun Wu
Olivier Laurent
Lianfa Li
Jianlin Hu
Michael Kleeman
July 2016
Research Report 188

HEI Research Report 188 analyzes associations between increases in various air pollution exposure metrics and increased risks of preterm birth. Jun Wu was funded under HEI's Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award to conduct a comprehensive nested, case-control study of air pollution and adverse birth and pregnancy outcomes, using birth certificate data collected in California from 2001 to 2008. 

Update Summer 2016

Health Effects Institute
July 2016
Newsletter

This edition of Update reports on HEI's presentation of GBD MAPS results at a major Chinese air pollution meeting; HEI's Annual Conference in Denver in May; two new HEI research reports on the effects of air pollution on birth and pregnancy outcomes; a meeting of the National Association of Clean Air Agencies at which HEI shared research results with diverse experts and regulators; and HEI's participation at a EPA Clean Air Act Advisory Committee meeting in June.

New Methods to Detect Aerosol Chemical Composition-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in a Biological Model

Richard E Peltier
Whitney Huynh
Pallavi Pant
Massimiliano Mascelloni
June 2016
Unpublished report

This unpublished research report describes a two-year study aimed at building and testing a method for the semi-continuous measurement of reactive oxidant species (ROS) generated by particulate matter in a cellular assay. The assay relied on the use of a compound that turns into a fluorescent product upon reaction with ROS generated in the cells.

Causal Inference Methods for Estimating Long-Term Health Effects of Air Quality Regulations

Corwin M. Zigler
Chanmin Kim
Christine Choirat
John Barrett Hansen
Yun Wang
Lauren Hund
Jonathan Samet
Gary King
Francesca Dominici
May 2016
Research Report 187

HEI Research Report 187 was funded as part of HEI’s Accountability research program, aimed at understanding whether actions to improve air quality have resulted in improved health outcomes. Corwin M. Zigler and his colleagues used existing and newly developed statistical methods to assess whether an intervention was causally related to changes in pollutant levels or health outcomes, and applied their methods in two well-developed case studies: effects of air quality interventions to reduce PM10 concentrations in nonattainment areas and the impact of installation of scrubber technologies on emissions from coal-fired power plants.

Ambient and Controlled Particle Exposures as Triggers for Acute ECG Changes

David Q. Rich
Annette Peters
Alexandra Schneider
Wojciech Zareba
Susanne Breitner
David Oakes
Jelani Wiltshire
Cathleen Kane
Mark W Frampton
Regina Hampel
Philip K Hopke
Josef Cyrys
Mark J Utell
May 2016
Research Report 186

Using data from four previously completed studies (two panel studies and two controlled-exposure studies), David Rich and Annette Peters and their teams investigated potential mechanisms behind the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and ultrafine particles on changes in cardiac rhythm, including heart rate variability and other ECG parameters.

Update Spring 2016

Health Effects Institute
May 2016
Newsletter

This newsletter reports on a third study under way in Europe to complete the comprehensive HEI effort to examine the potential health effects of air pollution at low levels; HEI's new research program focusing on the health effects of exposure to traffic-related pollution; and the GBD MAPS team's presentation of preliminary data on coal’s impact on health in China. In addition, it covers the publication of two new research reports covering novel statistical methods for studying pollutant mixtures and a “direct” approach evaluating the impact of air quality interventions through “causal inference” methods, as well as the retirement of HEI's Aaron Cohen, a strategy session held with HEI's sponsors, and HEI in the news.

Modeling of Multipollutant Profiles and Spatially Varying Health Effects with Applications to Indicators of Adverse Birth Outcomes

John Molitor
Eric Coker
Michael Jerrett
Beate Ritz
Arthur Li
April 2016
Research Report 183, Part III

This report is Part 3 of HEI Research Report 183, Development of Statistical Methods for Multipollutant Research. It describes a study to develop and apply statistical methods to analyze the effects of multipollutant exposures on health, expanding beyond the two-pollutant approaches used in many studies to date. HEI funded three innovative studies in recent years to improve the tools for analyzing complex multipollutant exposures. In this last report from these studies, John Molitor and colleagues describe a Bayesian framework to identify spatial clusters of air pollution exposures — and other covariates such as socioeconomic status — and estimated pregnancy outcomes associated with those clusters, using a data set for Los Angeles county. 

Update Winter 2016

Health Effects Institute
February 2016
Newsletter

The Winter Update newsletter features the upcoming HEI Annual Conference (sign up now!), a new member of the Review Committee, and a Global Burden of Disease Workshop in Mumbai, India, to calculate air pollution’s impact on global health. Also read about HEI’s study of changes in emissions in tunnels with the advent of new technology and HEI’s pending move to a new home.

Annual Report

Health Effects Institute
January 2016
Annual Report

The 2015 Annual Report – Vision 2020 - describes HEI’s partnership with scientists, government, industry, and the environmental community to provide high-quality, impartial, and relevant science to inform public policy decisions about air quality and public health. The report highlights the vision underlying HEI’s Strategic Plan 2015-2020 and outlines HEI’s contributions in the past year to important questions.

Analysis of Personal and Home Characteristics Associated with the Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air in the RIOPA Study

Patrick H Ryan
Cole Brokamp
Zhi-Hua (Tina) Fan
MB Rao
December 2015
Research Report 185

This report describes a study by Dr. Patrick Ryan at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. He used the RIOPA data – which HEI has made available to all scientists on the Web to further explore relationships among the elemental composition of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 samples collected at participant’s homes. His analyses included traditional and novel approaches to comparing the samples.

Executive Summary. The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

Health Effects Institute
December 2015
Communication - ACES

This Executive Summary of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) summarizes the main findings of emissions and health testing of new-technology heavy-duty diesel engines capable of meeting US 2007/2010 and EURO VI/6 diesel emissions standards. The results demonstrated the dramatic improvements in emissions and the absence of any significant health effects (especially cancer). ACES was the most comprehensive examination done to date of engines meeting the US 2007 and 2010 on-road standards.

Diesel Emissions and Lung Cancer: An Evaluation of Recent Epidemiological Evidence for Quantitative Risk Assessment

HEI Diesel Epidemiology Panel
November 2015
Special Report 19

Special Report 19 contains the intensive review and analysis of the newest studies of mine and truck workers exposed to older diesel engine exhaust conducted by an Expert Panel appointed by the HEI Board of Directors. In its report, HEI's Diesel Epidemiology Panel concluded that the studies are well prepared and are useful for applying the data to calculate the cancer risk due to exposure to diesel exhaust.

Update Fall 2015

Health Effects Institute
November 2015
Newsletter

This newsletter reports on the approval of new HEI studies to examine potential health effects of low-level pollution; the completion of a review of diesel exhaust studies (Special Report 19) by an HEI-appointed panel; and WHO's plans to update global air quality guidelines. In addition, it announces the publication of an HEI report taking a closer look at exposure to PM2.5 and its composition and a report evaluating rapid heart rhythm changes after exposure to PM. HEI also announces the recipient of the 2015 Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award and the appointment of three new HEI Research Committee members.

Strategic Research Agenda on the Potential Impacts of 21st Century Oil and Natural Gas Development in the Appalachian Region and Beyond

HEI Special Scientific Committee on Unconventional Oil and Gas Development in the Appalachian Basin
November 2015
Strategic Research Agenda

Unconventional oil and natural gas development is a driving force behind significant economic and energy policy shifts in the United States and the world today. Technological advances in development are substantially increasing energy supplies, while at the same time outpacing the scientific research that can answer questions about the development’s potential effects.

Update Summer 2015

Health Effects Institute
August 2015
Newsletter

This issue reports on the publication of an Executive Summary highlighting ACES new-technology diesel results, which describes significant improvements in new diesel engines; a conference showcasing HEI science and emerging research opportunities; interest worldwide in ACES findings; how HEI staff are communicating results; the status of the oil and gas research agenda being drafted by HEI; and the status of the MOSES testing of ozone study subjects.

HEI Investigators' Guide. Preparing the Final Report

Health Effects Institute
August 2015
Guide for Authors

The Investigators' Guide contains important information for HEI-funded investigators who are getting ready to write the Final Report for their study. The Guide introduces HEI's review, editing, and publication process and lists requirements for submission of the report. The Guide also contains detailed instructions on reference and text styles, tables and illustrations, and submission of electronic art.

Development of Statistical Methods for Multipollutant Research

Brent A Coull
et al.
Eun Sug Park
et al.
June 2015
Research Report 183, Parts 1 and 2

This report contains two studies, by Drs. Brent A Coull and Eun Sug Park and their colleagues, and a Commentary discussing each study individually, as well as an Integrative Discussion of the two. 
Part 1. Statistical Learning Methods for the Effects of Multiple Air Pollution ConstituentsBrent A. Coull et al.
Part 2. Development of Enhanced Statistical Methods for Assessing Health Effects Associated with an Unknown Number of Major Sources of Multiple Air Pollutants. Eun Sug Park et al. 

Immune Effects of Episodic Ozone and Particulate Matter Exposure During Postnatal Development

Fern Tablin
Lisa Miller
Philip Kass
June 2015
Unpublished Report

This unpublished report describes a two-year study to evaluate the effect of exposure to particulate matter and ozone on immune function in nonhuman primates (infant rhesus macaques) during early life. The investigators conducted a panel study that took advantage of "natural" exposures in the outdoor nonhuman primate colony maintained at the California National Primate Center, a research unit of the University of California–Davis.

Update Spring 2015

Health Effects Institute
May 2015
Newsletter

Contents: HEI's Strategic Plan for 2015–2020 Now Under Way;  Greenbaum Chairs NRC Review of U.S. Climate, Health Assessment; O'Keefe Closes Out Successful Run on Key Air Advisory Committee; Communicating Results - HEI Science Highlighted at EPA Workshops HEI in the News - Wide Audience for ACES Findings; Novel Statistical Methods for Studying Pollutant Mixtures; Journal Spotlights NPACT Studies; Eyes on the Future - HEI Sponsors Meet with Research Committee to Discuss the Path Forward;  Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award Announced

HEI's Strategic Plan 2015-2020

Health Effects Institute
May 2015
Strategic Plan

HEI has launched its Strategic Plan for Understanding the Health Effects of Air Pollution for the coming five years, guiding HEI’s direction based on extensive input from sponsors, the scientific community, environmental organizations, and others. The Plan seeks to produce timely and credible science to inform key decisions with one overarching theme: informing decisions on air quality and on climate-driven technology for 2015-2020…and beyond.

Update Winter 2015

Health Effects Institute
February 2015
Newsletter

Contents: Major Report on Newest Diesel Engines - No Evidence of Lung Cancer in Rats after Lifetime Exposure to New-Technology Diesel Exhaust; Sign Up Now for HEI's Annual Conference 2015 in Philadelphia in May; Nominations for Committee Membership Invited; Progress on Strategic Research Plan for Oil and Gas; Better Air Quality Meeting in Sri Lanka

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES): Lifetime Cancer and Non-Cancer Assessment in Rats Exposed to New-Technology Diesel Exhaust

Jacob D McDonald
Jeffrey C Bemis
Lance M Hallberg
Daniel J Conklin
January 2015
Research Report 184

This report describes four studies conducted as a single phase (Phase 3B) of HEI's Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) program, which was designed to evaluate the emissions and health changes resulting from substantially improved diesel engines required under the U.S. EPA 2007–2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Rule. These studies were conducted by Drs. Jacob D. McDonald of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Jeffrey C. Bemis of Litron Laboratories, Rochester, New York, Lance M. Hallberg of the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, and Daniel J. Conklin, University of Louisville, Kentucky.

Synergistic Effects of Particulate Matter and Substrate Stiffness on Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

Thomas H Barker
Marilyn M Dysart
Ashley C Brown
Alison M Douglas
Vincent F Fiore
Armistead G Russell
November 2014
Research Report 182

This report is a study focused on lung tissue repair processes after inflammation and injury resulting from exposure to particulate matter (PM) from combustion sources. Dr. Thomas H. Barker of Georgia Institute of Technology, a recipient of HEI's Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, and his colleagues tested the hypotheses that alveolar epithelial cells grown on substrates of increasing stiffness would transition to mesenchymal cells — an early step along the pathway to fibrosis — and that the addition of fine PM would enhance these effects.

Update Fall 2014

Health Effects Institute
October 2014
Newsletter

Contents: Setting a Course for 2020: The HEI Strategic Plan; RFA Seeks New Epidemiologic Studies; HEI Launches New International Project // Group of Experts Will Estimate Global Burden of Disease from Specific Major Air Pollution Sources; Communicating Results of Research; How PM May Affect Epithelial Cell Differentiation; Progress on Major Ozone Study; Panel Tours Gas Well Sites

Update Summer 2014

Health Effects Institute
August 2014
Newsletter

Contents: Conference Eyes Future of Air Pollution Research, Policy; Leading Health Expert to Chair Review Committee; Workshop on Unconventional Oil and Gas Development; Developing New Models for Ultrafine Particles and Air Toxics Exposures; Sharing Insight from NPACT Setting Research Priorities (Research Planning Meeting); HEI in the News; HEI Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Taking Shape

Development and Application of an Aerosol Screening Model for Size-Resolved Urban Aerosols

Charles O Stanier
Sang-Rin Lee
June 2014
Research Report 179

This report describes a study in which a model to simulate the dispersion of ultrafine particles near roadways was developed and tested. Understanding what happens to ultrafines near roadways – and how that influences exposure – is a key area that HEI's Perspectives 3 on ultrafines (2013) identified. Dr. Charles Stanier at the University of Iowa–Iowa City, a recipient of HEI's Walter A.

Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data

Stuart Batterman
Feng-Chiao Su
Shi Li
Bhramar Mukherjee
Chunrong Jia
June 2014
Research Report 181

This report describes a study to identify factors that influence exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and VOC mixtures. Dr. Stuart Batterman at the University of Michigan–Ann Arbor and colleagues used the extensive data that HEI posted on the Web from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study (HEI Research Report 130 Parts I and II), and data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), to characterize exposure distributions for 15 VOCs, with an emphasis on high concentrations. Factors examined included geographic location, weather, characteristics of participants' homes, and specific activities, such as pumping gas.

Update Spring 2014

Health Effects Institute
May 2014
Newsletter

Contents: HEI Research Committee Welcomes a New Epidemiologist; Ultrafine Particles Study Focuses on School Buses; New Initiative Addresses Unconventional Oil and Gas Development; A Growing Audience for HEI's Web Site; Sponsors, Research Committee Meet in Boston;  Assessing Diesel Epidemiology Studies; Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award

Characterizing Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants In and Around School Buses

Yifang Zhu
Qunfang Zhang
March 2014
Research Report 180

This report describes a study that assessed levels of ultrafine particles and other pollutants around diesel engine school buses and identified factors contributing to those levels. Dr. Yifang Zhu at the University of California–Los Angeles, a recipient of HEI's Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, measured pollutant levels in and around school buses while driving, while idling, before and after retrofitting with a diesel particle filter and/or oxidation catalyst, and before and after installing an in-cabin filtration system.

Update Winter 2014

Health Effects Institute
February 2014
Newsletter

Contents: ACES Phase 2 Study Shows Dramatic Reductions in Emissions from Newer Diesel Engines; Annual Conference in D.C. Area Will Spotlight Science to Inform the Future; HEI Hosts Diesel Epidemiology Workshop; Making Data on Air Pollution and Health Accessible;  New Funding Opportunities: Traffic Related Exposure Studies / HEI Seeks Research on Non-Tailpipe and Tailpipe Emissions Near Urban Roads and in Tunnels; Window on Tomorrow: Building the HEI Strategic Plan 2015–2020

New Statistical Approaches to Semiparametric Regression with Application to Air Pollution Research

James M Robins
Peng Zhang
Rajeev Ayyagari
Roger Logan
Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
Lingling Li
Thomas Lumley
Aad van der Vaart
November 2013
Research Report 175

This report describes semiparametric methods for epidemiologic investigations of the short-term effects of air pollution on health, intended specifically to improve the reliability of point estimates and confidence intervals. Dr. James Robins of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues developed the new methods, used simulations to compare them with other methods, and applied them to a large epidemiologic data set from the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to assess their effectiveness. The report is accompanied by a short editorial to assist the reader in understanding this study and its contributions to epidemiologic methods for air pollution.

Update Fall 2013

Health Effects Institute
November 2013
Newsletter

Contents: HEI NPACT Studies Examine Effects of PM Sources and Components; New Studies Aim to Improve Knowledge of Exposure to Traffic; New Statisticians for the Research and Review Committees; HEI Investigator Wins Friedlander Award; Scientists Share Global Perspectives at ISEE Conference; O'Keefe Delivers Inaugural Address at Major Emissions Control Meeting in Delhi

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative: Integrated Epidemiologic and Toxicologic Studies of the Health Effects of Particulate Matter Components

Morton Lippmann
Lung Chi Chen
Terry Gordon
Kazuhiko Ito
George D Thurston
October 2013
Research Report 177

This report describes the results of a study of long-term effects of PM components in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II cohort; a time-series study of short-term effects of PM components on cardiovascular and other diseases in people living in 150 U.S. cities; and two toxicologic studies in animals exposed by inhalation to concentrated ambient particles, and in animals and human cells exposed to particles collected on filters from five different airsheds across the United States. This report, along with Research Report 178 (Vedal et al.), is one of HEI's National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) studies, which describe the most systematic multidisciplinary studies to date to investigate the health effects of PM components in humans and animal models at locations across the United States where the effects of PM sources and components may differ. The report includes a Commentary and a Synthesis by the NPACT Review Panel.

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative Report on Cardiovascular Effects

Sverre Vedal
Matthew J Campen
Jacob D McDonald
Joel D Kaufman
Timothy V Larson
Paul D Sampson
Lianne Sheppard
Christopher D Simpson
Adam A Szpiro
October 2013
Research Report 178

This report describes the results of two cohort studies of long-term effects of PM components on subclinical and clinical markers of cardiovascular diseases and a toxicologic study in which animals were exposed to mixtures of vehicle engine emissions and non-vehicular PM and analyzed for vascular effects. Section 3 contains an integrated discussion of the studies. This report, along with Research Report 177 (Lippmann et al.), is one of HEI's National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) studies, which describe the most systematic multidisciplinary studies to date to investigate the health effects of PM components in humans and animal models at locations across the United States where the effects of PM sources and components may differ. The report includes a Commentary and a Synthesis by the NPACT Review Panel.

Effect of Air Pollution Control on Mortality and Hospital Admissions in Ireland

Douglas W Dockery
David Q Rich
Patrick G Goodman
Luke Clancy
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Prethibha George
Tania Kotlov
July 2013
Research Report 176

This report revisits an earlier study of the air pollution and health impacts of a coal ban in Dublin, Ireland, and then extends the analysis to coal bans in 11 additional Irish cities. Dr. Douglas W. Dockery of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues evaluated changes in black smoke and sulfur dioxide concentrations for the 5 years before and after the coal bans and examined how those changes related to mortality and hospitalization rates in the counties affected by the bans, as compared with other counties where coal bans were not implemented. They also included in their analysis other trends in health and social factors that were occurring at the same time.

Update Summer 2013

Health Effects Institute
July 2013
Newsletter

Contents: Annual Conference Showcases HEI's Scientific Program; Did the Irish Coal Bans Improve Air Quality and Health? Novel Approaches to Analyzing Health Effects Data; Board Seeks New Review Committee Chair; HEI Moving to Improve the Way it Communicates; Expert Group Conducts Peer Review of ACES Pathology Results

Update Spring 2013

Health Effects Institute
May 2013
Newsletter

This newsletter reports on an expert panel named to review diesel epidemiology studies, two HEI Asia workshops on the global health impact of air pollution, and a meeting of HEI's Research Committee and sponsors reviewing progress and priorities, as well as HEI in the news.

Cardiorespiratory Biomarker Responses in Healthy Young Adults to Drastic Air Quality Changes Surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics

Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Tong Zhu
Howard Kipen
Guangfa Wang
Wei Huang
David Rich
Ping Zhu
Yuedan Wang
Shou-En Lu
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Scott Diehl
Min Hu
Jian Tong
Jicheng Gong
Duncan Thomas
March 2013
Research Report 174

This report describes a study to evaluate a series of aggressive policies intended to reduce local and regional emissions in the greater Beijing metropolitan area leading up to and during the 2008 Olympics. Dr. Junfeng (Jim) Zhang of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and colleagues evaluated the impact of the likely changes in air pollution levels on cardiovascular responses in 125 healthy young participants before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. The investigators used mixed models and time-series methods to analyze associations between pollutant levels and biomarkers.

Selective Detection and Characterization of Nanoparticles from Motor Vehicles

Murray V Johnston
Joseph P Klems
Christopher A Zordan
M Ross Pennington
James N Smith
February 2013
Research Report 173

This report describes a study in which a nano aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS) was used to study composition of nanoparticles in real time near a major roadway intersection. Dr. Murray V. Johnston of the University of Delaware, Newark, and colleagues conducted a field test in Wilmington, Delaware, to evaluate performance of the instrument in a real-world setting and to assess whether it could aid in identifying the major source contributions to nanoparticle spikes and background levels, including distinguishing diesel from gasoline vehicles.

Update Winter 2013

Health Effects Institute
February 2013
Newsletter

Contents: Review of Ultrafine Particles Examines Wide Range of Health Studies; Timely Topics, Great City Highlight HEI Annual Conference; Tool Helps Identify Nanoparticles from Motor Vehicles; Air Pollution Controls During 2008 Beijing Olympics; Science Workshop to Inform European Union Policies; Study Finds Ambient Air Pollution Among Top Global Health Risks; ACES Emissions Testing and Animal Exposures Now Complete

Understanding the Health Effects of Ambient Ultrafine Particles

Health Effects Institute
January 2013
Perspectives 3

Perspectives 3 is the third of a series produced by HEI to describe and interpret results from HEI and other research bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience interested in environmental health. Perspectives 3 focuses on the health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) and was developed under the guidance of a special HEI Review Panel. It examines the contribution of motor vehicles within the broader context of the multiple sources of ambient UFPs and explores the evidence from experimental studies in animals and in humans, as well as observational epidemiologic studies of people exposed to UFPs in the environment. It also identifies some of the broader lessons about both the specific health effects associated with exposure to UFPs and possible directions for future studies that could enhance our understanding of emissions, exposures, and effects of UFPs.

Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs

Thomas J Smith
Mary E Davis
Jaime E Hart
Andrew Blicharz
Francine Laden
Eric Garshick
December 2012
Research Report 172

This report describes a study that measured concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in locations with potentially high levels of air pollution that could make them "hot spots" for human exposure. Dr. Thomas Smith of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues measured pollutant concentrations at upwind and downwind locations at the perimeter of the terminals, as well as inside truck cabs, at 15 truck terminals.

Accountability Analysis of Title IV Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

Richard D Morgenstern
Winston Harrington
Jhih-Shyang Shih
Michelle L Bell
November 2012
Research Report 168

This report describes a study that analyzed the relationships between reductions in pollutants from power plants and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the eastern United States between 1999 and 2005. Dr. Richard D. Morgenstern of Resources for the Future and colleagues used a novel data-driven source-receptor model to explore the statistical relationships between source emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides and monitored concentrations of PM2.5. They performed various external comparisons of their models, and compared the reductions to an estimated counterfactual scenario in which no mandated reductions in SO2 occurred.

Update Fall 2012

Health Effects Institute
November 2012
Newsletter

This update describes a new Diesel Epidemiology Project; a call for Research Proposals: Improving Traffic Exposure Analysis for Health Studies; the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study nearing completion; a new member of the Research Committee; a visit from Japanese Auto Officials; and two new Research Reports on Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs and on the Impact of 1990 Hong Kong Limits on Sulfur Content in Fuel. 

Multicity Study of Air Pollution and Mortality in Latin America (The ESCALA Study)

Isabelle Romieu
Nelson Gouveia
Luis A. Cifuentes
and teams of investigators in Brazil, Chile and Mexico
October 2012
Research Report 171

This report describes the first-ever multicity study to estimate the effect of short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10) and to ozone on mortality in nine Latin American cities. Led by Dr. Isabelle Romieu in Mexico, in collaboration with Dr. Nelson Gouveia in Brazil and Dr. Luis Cifuentes in Chile, the researchers evaluated mortality from all causes and in different age groups, using a common analytic framework. They analyzed mortality in each city and the region as a whole, and explored two pollutant models in individual cities. They also used two meta-analytic statistical techniques to further analyze the effects from individual cities.

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Subchronic Exposure Results: Biologic Responses in Rats and Mice and Assessment of Genotoxicity

Jacob D McDonald
Jeffrey C Bemis
Lance M Hallberg
Daniel J Conklin
Maiying Kong
September 2012
Research Report 166

This report provides the first systematic look at the health effects of exposures to emissions from a new-technology heavy-duty diesel engine. Included in this report are results obtained in rats and mice exposed for 1 and 3 months (and some results in rats at 12 months) to exhaust from a 2007-compliant diesel engine with aftertreatment to reduce particulate matter concentrations. Part 1 describes the core inhalation study by Drs. Jake McDonald and Joe Mauderly of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, with results on general organ toxicity, lung histopathology, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in blood and lung lavage fluid. Parts 2 and 3 describe studies by Drs. Jeffrey Bemis of Litron Laboratories and Lance Hallberg of the University of Texas Medical Branch, respectively, assessing genotoxic endpoints in the exposed rodents. Part 4 describes a study of vascular markers by Daniel Conklin of the University of Louisville. The Preface to this report contains background information about the planning and designing of the study, including decisions regarding the diesel exhaust dilutions and the choice of rodent strains.

Impact of the 1990 Hong Kong Legislation for Restriction on Sulfur Content in Fuel

Chit-Ming Wong
Ari Rabl
Thuan Q Thach
Yuen Kwan Chau
King Pan Chan
Benjamin J Cowling
Hak Kan Lai
Tai Hing Lam
Sarah M McGhee
H Ross Anderson
Anthony J Hedley
August 2012
Research Report 170

This report describes a study to explore the role that specific chemical constituents of particulate air pollution may have played in effects on daily mortality observed after the 1990 Hong Kong restriction on sulfur in fuels. The study was part of HEI's Outcomes Research program, which aims to assess the health impacts of actions taken to improve air quality. Dr. Chit-Ming Wong of the University of Hong Kong and his team also developed methods to estimate the impacts on life expectancy of the 1990 sulfur restriction.

Update Summer 2012

Health Effects Institute
July 2012
Newsletter

Contents: HEI research contributes to international (IARC) review of diesel and gasoline cancer risk; Annual Conference highlights new PM, diesel, and ozone findings, major issues; Air quality outcomes of national limits on power plant emissions; Study tests potential uses of satellite-based PM measurements.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions of Young Children for Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

HEI Collaborative Working Group on Air Pollution, Poverty, and Health in Ho Chi Minh City
June 2012
Research Report 169

This report describes a study to investigate the relationships among daily variations in air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, hospital admissions for acute lower respiratory infections in children under age 5, and poverty. The study was part of HEI's Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program and is the first study of air quality and health to be performed in Vietnam. The team of investigators, led by Drs. Le Truong Giang, Long Ngo, and Sumi Mehta, collected daily pollutant data for PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at multiple locations throughout the city and obtained admissions data from the two pediatric hospitals in HCMC. They then performed statistical analysis on the data using Poisson time-series and case–crossover methods.

Assessment and Statistical Modeling of the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Aerosol Optical Depth and PM2.5 in the Eastern United States

Christopher J Paciorek
Yang Liu
May 2012
Research Report 167

This report describes a study to assess the ability of satellite-based measurements from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellites to fill spatial and temporal gaps in existing monitoring networks in the eastern United States. Dr. Paciorek and colleagues developed statistical models for integrating monitoring, satellite, and geographic information system (GIS) data to estimate monthly ambient PM2.5 concentrations and used those models to estimate monthly average PM2.5 concentrations across the eastern United States. They then developed and applied statistical methods to quantify how uncertainties in exposure estimates based on ground-level monitoring data might be reduced. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.

Update Spring 2012

Health Effects Institute
April 2012
Newsletter
Contents: Greenbaum Testifies on "Producing Credible Science for Decisions"; New HEI Health Effects Study of Modern Diesel Engine Emissions; Health Outcomes and Biomarkers Studies Approved; Multicity Study in Latin America; Air Pollution and Children's Health in Vietnam; HEI in the News; Communication 17: ACES Exposure Atmosphere; Annual Report Now Available; New Global Burden of Disease Estimates; HEI Investigator Wins Haagen-Smit Prize; Workshop on Assessing Exposure to Pollution from Traffic; IARC Review of Diesel and Gasoline Exhaust

Allergic Inflammation in the Human Lower Respiratory Tract Affected by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

Marc A Riedl
David Diaz-Sanchez
William S Linn
Henry Gong Jr
Kenneth W Clark
Richard M Effros
J Wayne Miller
David R Cocker
Kiros T Berhane
February 2012
Research Report 165

This report describes a study evaluating the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the lower airways and blood of allergic asthmatic participants. The study by Dr. Riedl and colleagues was funded as part of HEI's research program looking at diesel exhaust and other particle exposures and allergic response. The participants were exposed in random order to 100 µg/m3 diesel exhaust or 0.35 ppm nitrogen dioxide for 2 hours, with or without an allergen inhalation challenge. The investigators measured multiple physiologic and pulmonary function endpoints, including specific airway resistance, oxygen saturation, bronchial reactivity, and inflammatory and immunologic endpoints.

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Phase 3A: Characterization of U.S. 2007-Compliant Diesel Engine and Exposure System Operation

Joe L Mauderly
Jacob D McDonald
February 2012
Communication 17
Communication 17 describes Phase 3A of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) to test emissions and health effects of emissions from 2007- and 2010-compliant diesel engines. The Communication contains results from the characterization of exposure atmospheres by Drs. Joe Mauderly and Jake McDonald at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in advance of the start of animal toxicity testing in ACES Phase 3B. It provides important background information on the emissions from one selected 2007-compliant engine and their concentrations in the animal exposure chambers.

Assessment of the Health Impacts of Particulate Matter Characteristics

Michelle L Bell
January 2012
Research Report 161

This report describes a study by Dr. Michelle Bell of Yale University to evaluate the effects of exposure to components of the PM2.5 mixture on short-term morbidity and mortality, using data on 52 components of PM2.5 for 187 US counties. The report explores regional and seasonal variation in the chemical composition of PM2.5 and whether this variation affects the association between short-term exposure to PM and health effects. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.

Update Winter 2012

Health Effects Institute
January 2012
Newsletter

Contents: Effects of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Persons with Asthma and Allergy; Workshop Brings Experts Together: Atmospheric Chemists and Health Effects Scientists Meet at HEI to Discuss Common Goals; Symposium Sheds Light on Air Toxics Hot Spots; Wood Stove Changeout Program Brings Some Improvements in Health, Air Quality; Three New HEI Studies Launched: Ozone Exposure and Inflammatory Cells / PM Exposure and Heart Rhythm / Impact of Exposure in Early Life; ACES Reaches Important Milestones; New Investigator Awards Announced; Eaton Elected to Institute of Medicine

Pulmonary Particulate Matter and Systemic Microvascular Dysfunction

Timothy R Nurkiewicz
Dale W Porter
Ann F Hubbs
Samuel Stone
Amy M Moseley
Jared L Cumpston
Adam G Goodwill
Stephanie J Frisbee
Peter L Perrotta
Robert W Brock
Jefferson C Frisbee
Matthew A Boegehold
David G Frazer
Bean T Chen
Vincent Castranova
December 2011
Research Report 164

This report describes a study that evaluated whether exposure to fine or nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles may affect cardiovascular endpoints, in particular endothelium-dependent vascular dilation. Dr. Nurkiewicz and colleagues exposed rats via inhalation to 0.5 to 20 mg/m3 TiO2 for up to 12 hours and evaluated them for vascular dilation and for markers of oxidative stress, coagulation, and inflammation. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.   

Assessing the Impact of a Wood Stove Replacement Program on Air Quality and Children’s Health

Curtis W Noonan
Tony J Ward
William Navidi
Lianne Sheppard
Megan Bergauff
Chris Palmer
December 2011
Research Report 162
This report describes a study evaluating a community-wide program to improve air quality in a rural mountain community (Libby, Montana) by replacing older, more polluting wood stoves with new, less polluting stoves. Over the course of 4 winters, Dr. Noonan and colleagues measured PM2.5 and markers for wood smoke outdoors, in schools, and in about 20 homes before and after stove changeout. In parallel, they tracked children's respiratory symptoms (based on parental surveys) and school absences.

The London Low Emission Zone Baseline Study

Frank Kelly
Ben Armstrong
Richard Atkinson
H Ross Anderson
Ben Barratt
Sean Beevers
Derek Cook
David Green
Dick Derwent
Ian Mudway
Paul Wilkinson
November 2011
Research Report 163

This report describes a study evaluating the feasibility of studying potential changes in air quality and health associated with the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ), which went into effect in 2008 and restricts entry of older, more polluting vehicles into Greater London. Based on their earlier study of London's Congestion Charging Scheme, Dr. Kelly and colleagues conducted emissions and exposure modeling to estimate the projected effects of LEZ implementation. They also assessed the feasibility of using medical records from private practices to evaluate the relationships between exposure to traffic and indicators of respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

Personal and Ambient Exposures to Air Toxics in Camden, New Jersey

Paul J Lioy
Zhihua (Tina) Fan
Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Panos Georgopoulos
Sheng-Wei Wang
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Xiangmei Wu
Xianlei Zhu
Jason Herrington
Xiaogang Tang
Qingyu Meng
Kyung Hwa Jung
Jaymin Kwon
Marta Hernandez
et al.
August 2011
Research Report 160

This report describes a study that tested whether an air toxics "hot spot" existed in Camden, NJ. Dr. Lioy and colleagues evaluated ambient and personal exposures of nonsmoking residents to PM2.5, VOCs, aldehydes, and PAHs in two neighborhoods in Camden, NJ, one of which was hypothesized to be a regional air toxics "hot spot." The investigators compared concentrations of air pollutants in the two neighborhoods with each other and then with concentrations at other locations in the United States. They also assessed the effects of seasonality, contributions from mobile sources, and spatial variability.

Air Toxics Exposure from Vehicle Emissions at a U.S. Border Crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study

John Spengler
Jamson Lwebuga-Mukasa
Jose Vallarino
Steve Melly
Steve Chillrud
Joel Baker
Taeko Minegishi
July 2011
Research Report 158

This report describes a study that tested whether emissions from traffic caused an air toxics "hot spot" in a neighborhood in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Spengler and colleagues hypothesized that vehicle-related emissions from heavy traffic at the Peace Bridge in Buffalo, one of the nation's busiest border crossings and a potential air pollution hot spot, would result in elevated downwind levels of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other traffic-related pollutants. The investigators measured levels of a large number of MSATs as well as six criteria pollutants using both fixed-site and mobile monitoring in order to examine the relation between traffic at the bridge and the spatial distribution of ambient pollutant concentrations at the bridge and in an adjacent neighborhood.

Role of Neprilysin in Airway Inflammation Induced by Diesel Exhaust Emissions

Simon S Wong
Nina N Sun
Cynthia D Fastje
Mark L Witten
R Clark Lantz
Bao Lu
Duane L Sherrill
Craig J Gerard
Jefferey L Burgess
June 2011
Research Report 159

This report evaluates airway inflammatory responses and expression of the enzyme neprilysin in response to diesel exhaust particle exposure. Dr. Wong and colleagues hypothesized that components of diesel exhaust decrease neprilysin levels in airways, leading to airway function disorders and heightened responses to diesel exhaust. They exposed normal mice, mice genetically deficient in neprilysin, human subjects, and human airway epithelial cells to diesel exhaust particles and measured airway inflammation, neprilysin expression, and any unique responses in neprilysin-deficient mice.

The Impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on Air Quality in London

Frank Kelly
H Ross Anderson
Ben Armstrong
Richard Atkinson
Ben Barratt
Sean Beevers
Dick Derwent
David Green
Ian Mudway
Paul Wilkinson
April 2011
Research Report 155

This report describes a study that was funded under HEI's research program aimed at measuring the possible health impacts associated with actions taken to improve air quality (health outcomes research). Dr. Kelly and colleagues used a multifaceted approach to exploring the impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on air quality, which involved a variety of emissions and exposure modeling techniques, analysis of air monitoring data, and a newly developed assay for the oxidative potential of particulate matter collected on filters at urban backgrounds and roadside monitors.

Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): Coordinated Studies of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Two Indian Cities

Kalpana Balakrishnan
et al.
Uma Rajarathnam
et al.
March 2011
Research Report 157

This report contains studies in Chennai and Delhi led by Dr. Kalpana Balakrishnan and Dr. Uma Rajarathnam, respectively. These time-series studies of air pollution and mortality in India were funded under HEI's PAPA Program to provide information to inform regulatory and other decisions that would be relevant to local populations, with the added goal of supporting scientific capacity building in the region.

The Future of Vehicle Fuels and Technologies: Anticipating Health Benefits and Challenges

Health Effects Institute
February 2011
Communication 16

This report reviews new vehicle fuels and technologies that are likely to be commercially available within the next 10 years in the United States and other industrialized countries at a level that could result in significant population exposure. It highlights expected changes in emissions and other effects from the use of each technology and fuel, along with any life-cycle and regulatory issues.

Concentrations of Air Toxics in Motor Vehicle-Dominated Environments

Eric M Fujita
David E Campbell
Barbara Zielinska
William P Arnott
Judith C Chow
February 2011
Research Report 156

This report describes research funded under HEI's Air Toxics Hot Spot program. Dr. Eric Fujita and colleagues characterized concentrations of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other pollutants in potential Los Angeles County pollution hot spots, including on urban highways with a varying mix of gasoline- and diesel-powered traffic and sites at various distances from the highways and close to other roads.

Improved Source Apportionment and Speciation of Low-Volume Particulate Matter Samples

James J Schauer
Brian J Majestic
Rebecca J Sheesley
Martin M Shafer
Jeffrey T DeMinter
Mark Mieritz
December 2010
Research Report 153

This report investigates methods with the high sensitivity and low limits of detection needed to analyze a wide range of chemical species in particulate matter collected with personal samplers. Dr. Schauer and colleagues developed sensitive methods to detect trace metals, nonpolar organic compounds, and polar organic compounds in personal samples collected in exposure studies. Methods used in this study are of interest to researchers seeking to gain greater insight into the relationships between the components of inhalable particulates and their health effects.

Evaluating Heterogeneity in Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Using Land-Use Regression and Constrained Factor Analysis

Jonathan I Levy
Jane E Clougherty
Lisa K Baxter
E Andres Houseman
Christopher J Paciorek
December 2010
Research Report 152

This report explores how land-use regression and source-apportionment techniques can be used to characterize individual-level exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollution sources. Dr. Levy and colleagues utilized health and air monitoring data from an ongoing prospective cohort study on childhood asthma in Boston, Massachusetts to model variability in outdoor and indoor residential air pollution, identify potential sources, and evaluate the effectiveness of various indoor exposure surrogates for predicting childhood asthma development.

Outdoor Air Pollution and Health in the Developing Countries of Asia: A Comprehensive Review

Health Effects Institute
November 2010
Special Report 18

This comprehensive literature review to come out of HEI's Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program builds on an initial assessment conducted in 2004 and describes the current scope of the Asian literature on the health effects of outdoor air pollution, enumerating and classifying more than 400 studies. In addition, the report includes a systematic and quantitative assessment of 82 time-series studies of daily mortality and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory disease.

Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): Coordinated Studies of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Four Cities

Haidong Kan
et al.
Zhengmin Qian
et al.
Nuntavarn Vichit-Vadakan
et al.
Chit-Ming Wong
et al.
November 2010
Research Report 154

This report describes the first set of coordinated time-series studies ever undertaken in Asian cities: four time-series studies of the health effects of air pollution in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. These studies were intended to help bridge the gaps between studies conducted in different locations around the globe.

Pulmonary Effects of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust in Young and Old Mice: A Pilot Project

Debra L Laskin
Gediminas Mainelis
Barbara J Turpin
Kinal J Patel
Vasanthi R Sunil
September 2010
Research Report 151

This report explores the possible physiological basis for epidemiologic results suggesting that people over the age of 55 are more sensitive than younger people to the effects of exposure to particulate matter. Dr. Debra Laskin and colleagues hypothesized that this sensitivity resulted from the lung cells of the elderly producing less of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (a cell protein involved in systemic inflammation), as compared with the lung cells of the young after exposure to air pollution.

Proceedings of an HEI Workshop on Further Research to Assess the Health Impacts of Actions Taken to Improve Air Quality

Health Effects Institute
August 2010
Communication 15

Communication 15, Proceedings of an HEI Workshop on Further Research to Assess the Health Impacts of Actions Taken to Improve Air Quality, summarizes the findings of a workshop held in December 2009 that reviewed the current state of research to evaluate the impact of air quality interventions (also known as accountability or air quality outcomes research).

Mutagenicity of Stereochemical Configurations of 1,3-Butadiene Epoxy Metabolites in Human Cells

Ryan Q Meng
Linda C Hackfeld
Richard P Hodge
Lynne A Wisse
Diana L Redetzke
Vernon E Walker
June 2010
Research Report 150

This report describes a study by Dr. Ryan Meng and colleagues to determine the role of stereochemistry in the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of three major butadiene metabolites. This study is a part of HEI's program of research in air toxics; one important aim of that program has been to fill key gaps in risk assessment for some of the most important chemicals. Butadiene is present in motor vehicle exhaust and other emissions and is listed by the U.S.

Development and Application of a Sensitive Method to Determine Concentrations of Acrolein and Other Carbonyls in Ambient Air

Thomas M Cahill
M Judith Charles
Vincent Y Seaman
May 2010
Research Report 149

This report describes a study by Dr. Thomas Cahill and colleagues to create and evaluate a new method to measure acrolein and other volatile carbonyls present at low concentrations in ambient air. Acrolein is an important aldehyde that is very difficult to measure accurately, so developing better methods for measuring levels and exposure is critical to better risk assessment for the chemical. The investigators developed a sampler that traps acrolein using sodium bisulfite in an aqueous medium.

Atmospheric Transformation of Diesel Emissions

Barbara Zielinska
Shar Samy
Jacob D McDonald
JeanClare Seagrave
April 2010
Research Report 147

This report describes a study by Dr. Barbara Zielinska and colleagues to investigate the changes that fresh diesel emissions undergo when they are mixed with ambient air, due to reactions with sunlight and other pollutants. The investigators also evaluated how those changes may affect the toxic properties of diesel emissions. The study used a relatively new (2003 model) light duty diesel engine (although not one with a diesel filter) and provides insight into the complexity of diesel exhaust composition in the real world.

Impact of Improved Air Quality During the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on Multiple Cardiovascular and Respiratory Outcomes

Jennifer L Peel
Mitchell Klein
W Dana Flanders
James A Mulholland
Paige E Tolbert
April 2010
Research Report 148

This report is the latest in HEI's program of studies to assess the health impacts of air quality actions. Research Report 148 describes a study to evaluate the effect of a short-term, temporary intervention to reduce traffic congestion during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia. A previous study had shown a decrease in acute care visits for pediatric asthma and a concomitant decrease in concentrations of ozone, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide.

Traffic-Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects

Health Effects Institute
January 2010
Special Report 17

A Special Report of the Institute's Panel on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution. This report is the most comprehensive and systematic review to date of the scientific literature on emissions, exposure, and health effects from traffic-related air pollution. It includes conclusions about the populations exposed around major roads, the associations between exposure to air pollution from traffic and human health, and important remaining data gaps. Compared with the initial pre-print version released in May 2009, this final version has undergone data verification and editorial changes; however, the overall conclusions did not change.

The Role of T Cells in the Regulation of Acrolein-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Epithelial-Cell Pathology

Michael T Borchers
Scott C Wesselkamper
Hitesh Deshmukh
Erin Beckman
Mario Medvedovic
Maureen Sartor
George D Leikauf
December 2009
Research Report 146

This report describes a study to investigate the role of two subpopulations of T cells in the airway response to inhaled acrolein, a toxic pollutant in ambient air, which US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment has identified as having broad effects. Dr. Michael Borchers and colleagues measured inflammation and injury in response to acrolein in the lungs of mice that are genetically deficient in the specific T-cell subpopulations. He also measured changes in gene expression in the T-cell subpopulations after acrolein exposure. This study was funded under the Walter A.

Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles and Diesel Engine Exhaust on Allergic Airway Disease in Brown Norway Rats

Jack R Harkema
James G Wagner
Norbert E Kaminski
Masako Morishita
Gerald J Keeler
Jacob D McDonald
Edward G Barrett
November 2009
Research Report 145

This report describes a study to investigate the suggested association between exposure to traffic-derived pollution and increases in symptoms of airway diseases, including exacerbation of asthma. Dr. Jack Harkema and colleagues assessed the effects of two pollutant mixtures, concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and diesel exhaust, on airway inflammatory and allergic responses in a rodent model of asthma. The study was one part of an HEI 3-study program of animal and human research on these important questions.

Air Pollution and Health: A European and North American Approach

Klea Katsouyanni
Jonathan M Samet
H Ross Anderson
Richard Atkinson
Alain Le Tertre
Sylvia Medina
Evangelia Samoli
Giota Touloumi
Richard T Burnett
Daniel Krewski
Timothy Ramsay
Francesca Dominici
Roger D Peng
Joel Schwartz
Antonella Zanobetti
October 2009
Research Report 142

This report describes a unique collaboration among investigators from Europe, the United States, and Canada using existing data from three geographic areas and supported by HEI in collaboration with the European Commission. APHENA offered a large and diverse data set with which to address methodological as well as scientific issues about the relationships between PM10, ozone, and mortality and morbidity that were the subject of lively debates at the time the project was launched. 

HEI’s Research Program on the Impact of Actions to Improve Air Quality: Interim Evaluation and Future Directions

Annemoon M van Erp
Aaron J Cohen
September 2009
Communication 14

Communication 14, HEI's Research Program on the Impact of Actions to Improve Air Quality: Interim Evaluation and Future Directions, provides an overview of progress to date in HEI's Accountability program by evaluating nine studies that HEI has funded to assess actions that improve air quality. HEI's Accountability Research Program was initiated to assess the extent to which the predicted health benefits of new regulations have occurred.

Genotoxicity of 1,3-Butadiene and Its Epoxy Intermediates

Vernon E Walker
Dale M Walker
Quanxin Meng
Jacob D McDonald
Bobby R Scott
Steven K Seilkop
David J Claffey
Patricia B Upton
Mark W Powley
James A Swenberg
Rogene F Henderson
August 2009
Research Report 144

This report describes a study to evaluate genotoxic effects of exposure to 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites. 1,3-Butadiene is classified as a human carcinogen via inhalation, but risk assessment is complicated due to differences in metabolism between mice and rats and between males and females. Dr. Walker and colleagues studied mutagenicity in rats and mice of both genders, with a focus on evaluating stereoisomers of 1,3-butadiene metabolites and low exposure concentrations.

Measurement and Modeling of Exposure to Selected Air Toxics for Health Effects Studies and Verification by Biomarkers

Roy M Harrison
Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit
Stephen J Baker
Noel Aquilina
Claire Meddings
Stuart Harrad
Ian Matthews
Sotiris Vardoulakis
H Ross Anderson
June 2009
Research Report 143

This report describes a study to develop detailed personal exposure models that take various microenvironments into account. To develop the models, Dr. Harrison and colleagues made repeated measurements of exposure to selected air toxics for each of 100 healthy adult nonsmoking participants residing in urban, suburban, and rural areas of the United Kingdom expected to have different traffic exposures.

Extended Follow-Up and Spatial Analysis of the American Cancer Society Study Linking Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality

Daniel Krewski
Michael Jerrett
Richard T Burnett
Renjun Ma
Edward Hughes
Yuanli Shi
Michelle C Turner
C Arden Pope III
George Thurston
Eugenia E Calle
Michael J Thun
et al.
May 2009
Research Report 140

This report describes a recent analysis of the original ACS cohort, a large ongoing prospective study of mortality in adults that started in 1982 and has played a central role in the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter pollution in the U.S. as well as assessments of benefits from PM reduction worldwide. The new study describes for the first time work by Dr.

Air Pollution Effects on Ventricular Repolarization

Robert L Lux
C Arden Pope III
May 2009
Research Report 141

This report describes a study to explore novel electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters to improve our understanding of how air pollution may affect cardiovascular health. Drs. Robert Lux and Arden Pope used ECGs obtained in a previous study by Dr. Pope that found a decrease in heart rate variability associated with increased levels of particulate matter, and analyzed them for changes in novel parameters of another important potential change - ventricular repolarization.

Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Respiratory and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Netherlands: The NLCS-AIR Study

Bert Brunekreef
Rob Beelen
Gerard Hoek
Leo Schouten
Sandra Bausch-Goldbohm
Paul Fischer
Ben Armstrong
Edward Hughes
Michael Jerrett
Piet van den Brandt
March 2009
Research Report 139

Research Report 139 describes a study in the Netherlands using data from the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) on diet and cancer. The study is one of the first to systematically assess longer term exposure and mortality in a well characterized European population; it followed a pilot study of 5000 adults randomly selected from the NLCS cohort conducted by the same team of investigators. For the current study, Dr.

The Influence of Improved Air Quality on Mortality Risks in Erfurt, Germany

Annette Peters
Susanne Breitner
Josef Cyrys
Matthias Stölzel
Mike Pitz
Gabriele Wölke
Joachim Heinrich
Wolfgang Kreyling
Helmut Küchenhoff
H-Erich Wichmann
February 2009
Research Report 137

Research Report 137, The Influence of Improved Air Quality on Mortality Risks in Erfurt, Germany, is the first study to come out of HEI's program on the health impact of regulatory and other actions to improve air quality, known as accountability. The report describes sweeping changes in the economy and energy use that occurred in the former East Germany after the 1990 reunification as a result of stricter environmental controls and modernization of industry, transportation, and household heating. Dr.

Health Effects of Real-World Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Persons with Asthma

Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
James E McCreanor
Paul Cullinan
Kian Fan Chung
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
In-Kyu Han
Lars Järup
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
February 2009
Research Report 138

Research Report 138, Health Effects of Real-World Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Persons with Asthma, is one part of HEI's larger program on the role of particles in exacerbating asthma and other allergic diseases. This report describes a study to evaluate how inhaling air with a high concentration of diesel exhaust from vehicular traffic while walking on a busy street in Central London might affect people who had either mild or moderate asthma. Dr.