Workshop on Effects of Fuel Composition on PM

December 8, 2016

There is evidence that the degree of hydrocarbon unsaturation in gasoline, including the contribution from aromatic compounds, is proportional to particulate matter (PM) emissions. The use of ethanol blends would be expected to dilute unsaturated hydrocarbons in fuels in proportion to blending levels, and thereby reduce PM formation. However, recent data from the U.S. EPA’s Office of Transportation and Air Quality suggest that ethanol’s effects on PM emissions are complex and that, at least for certain vehicles, ethanol augments the effect of unsaturation in terms of production of PM. Given that the Energy Policy Act of 2005 mandates the use of increasing amounts of renewable fuels in the coming years, the most recent data on unsaturation and PM emissions raise a potentially significant issue. Additionally, very little is known about the potential impact of such emissions — including primary PM — on secondary organic aerosol formation, which is an important, though not well characterized, issue regarding population-wide PM exposure. 

In view of the importance of the above-mentioned issues, and given the many uncertainties, HEI held a workshop on December 8, 2016, with the goal of providing an overview of research on the effects of fuel composition on PM (including both primary emissions and secondary PM formation). Introductory presentations included overviews of regulatory issues in the US and Europe, of engine/vehicle parameters, and of fuel formulation. Other speakers discussed results of studies on the effects of aromatics and other high molecular weight hydrocarbons as well as ethanol blending, along with the effects of other fuel parameters, on emissions from both traditional gasoline engines as well gasoline direct injection engines. Results of laboratory studies (including the EPAct) and real world studies were presented and discussed. The workshop ended with a discussion of research approaches and research needs, within the policy context. The workshop was attended by approximately 45 researchers and government and industry representatives.

An Executive Summary of the workshop is now availble (see Program Downloads in the sidebar). 

Planning Committee: Allen Robinson, Robert Harley, Maria Costantini, and Rashid Shaikh


Introduction and Background

Dec. 8, 2016 - 8:30am

Chair: David Foster, University of Wisconsin

8:30 AM Welcome and introduction to the workshop

8:50 AM Policy background and future directions in the US and Europe

9:20 AM The gasoline engine as a system and the role of new technology

9:50 AM Gasoline fuel – Formulation issues and constraints, and background to emissions testing

10:20 AM Break

Atmospheric and Ambient PM

Dec. 8, 2016 - 10:40am

Chair: Rashid Shaikh, Health Effects Institute

10:40 AM Trends and sources of primary PM emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

11:10 AM Linking tailpipe to ambient – primary emissions versus secondary PM formation

Fuel Composition, Engine Technology, and PM Emissions – Part 1

Dec. 8, 2016 - 11:40am

Chair: Robert Harley

11:40 AM The results of EPAct/V2/E-89 study and data analysis – summary

12:15 PM Lunch

Fuel Composition, Engine Technology, and PM Emissions – Part 2

Dec. 8, 2016 - 1:15pm

Chair: Allen Robinson

1:15 PM Effects of fuel properties on particulate emissions from GDI vehicles: Role of the PM Index

1:40 PM Fuel and after-treatment effects of particulate and toxic emissions from GDI and PFI vehicles: a summary of CE-CERT research

2:05 PM Characterization of GDI particle emissions during start-stop operation with alcohol fuel blends

2:30 PM Break

2:45 PM Fuel effects of regulated emissions from modern gasoline vehicles

3:10 PM Black carbon particle emissions from GDI vehicles operating on different fuels

3:35 PM Relative toxicity of old and new technology heavy- and light-duty mobile source PM

Panel Discussion: Integrating Research and Policy Issues

Dec. 8, 2016 - 4:00pm

Chair: Dan Greenbaum

Speakers for opening comments: Kathryn Sargeant, EPA; Geoff Cooper, Renewable Fuel Association; Matti Maricq, Ford Motor Company; Daniel Short, Marathon Petroleum Corporation

4:00 PM Opening comments

5:00 PM Adjourn

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