Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

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Update Fall 2017

Health Effects Institute
October 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of HEI Update, read about the new ways HEI is making study data accessible; a literature review that HEI will soon initiate on the effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution; two new members of the HEI Review Committee; and a newly published summary of an HEI expert workshop on the effects of fuel composition on particulate matter emissions.

Particulate Air Pollutants, Brain Structure, and Neurocognitive Disorders in Older Women

Jiu-Chiuan Chen
Xinhui Wang
Marc Serre
Steven Cen
Meredith Franklin
Mark Espeland
October 2017
Research Report 193

Research Report 193 describes a novel study by Jiu-Chiuan Chen and colleagues examining possible associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and changes in the brains of older women in the United States. The study focused on brain volumes and neurocognitive outcomes, specifically mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Dr. Chen used neuroimaging and cognitive outcome data from women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and estimated their exposure to ambient PM2.5 and to diesel PM.

Update Summer 2017

Health Effects Institute
August 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of HEI Update, read about the Haagen-Smit Clean Air Leadership Award given to HEI President Dan Greenbaum by the California Air Resources Board, the two 2017 recipients of HEI’s Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, and the progress of HEI studies examining potential health effects at low levels of air pollution. Also in this issue is a recap of HEI’s recent Annual Conference in Alexandria, Virginia.

Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES): Part 1. Effects of Exposure to Low Concentrations of Ozone on Respiratory and Cardiovascular Outcomes

Mark W Frampton
John R Balmes
Philip A Bromberg
Paul Stark
Mehrdad Arjomandi
Milan J Hazucha
David Q Rich
Danielle Hollenbeck-Pringle
Nicholas Dagincourt
Neil Alexis
Peter Ganz
Wojciech Zareba
Maria G Costantini
June 2017
Research Report 192 Part 1

HEI Research Report 192 describes a multicenter study by John Balmes at the University of California–San Francisco, Phil Bromberg at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, and Mark Frampton at the University of Rochester, New York. The study was designed to test whether ozone has short-term cardiovascular effects at present-day ambient levels. It evaluated respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in 87 healthy participants (60 years old on average) who were exposed to 0, 70, or 120 ppb ozone for 3 hours while exercising moderately.

Update Spring 2017

Health Effects Institute
June 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of Update, read about HEI’s forthcoming publication of a major report, Multicenter Ozone Study in Older Subjects; the briefing of key legislators and stakeholders on HEI’s Accountability Research Program; and a forthcoming study examining potential links between air pollution and dementia in older women. This issue also highlights worldwide media coverage of HEI’s State of Global Air Report 2017.

Protective Role of Eosinophils and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α after Ozone Inhalation

Allison D Fryer
David B Jacoby
Sarah A Wicher
March 2017
Research Report 191

Research Report 191 describes a study by Allison Fryer and colleagues that addressed how exposure to ozone affects the immune and physiological responses in guinea pigs. In her study, Dr. Fryer focused on eosinophils, white blood cells that play an important role in inflammation, allergies, and allergic asthma, and can modify the airway response to ozone inhalation. This study tested a novel hypothesis: that allergic guinea pigs react differently to ozone than normal animals because of newly formed eosinophils that migrate from bone marrow to the lungs.

Update Winter 2017

Health Effects Institute
February 2017
Newsletter

In this issue of Update, read about HEI’s new “State of Global Air” annual report and website and our upcoming Annual Conference in Alexandria, Virginia (see the preliminary program). Also read about the recipient of the 2016 Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, the appointment of a new member to HEI’s Board of Directors, and HEI "Communicating the Science” at meetings in the U.S. and abroad.

Annual Report

Health Effects Institute
January 2017
Annual Report

The 2016 Annual Report, Trusted Science for Decisions, describes HEI’s partnership with industry, government, scientists, and the environmental community to provide high-quality, impartial, and relevant science to inform public policy decisions about air quality and public health. Included is a description of HEI’s rigorous approach to science and the many ways diverse stakeholders in the United States and worldwide put the research findings to use.

The Effects of Policy-Driven Air Quality Improvements on Children’s Respiratory Health

Frank Gilliland
Edward L Avol
Rob McConnell
Kiros T Berhane
W James Gauderman
Fred W Lurmann
Robert Urman
Roger Chang
Edward B Rappaport
Stephen Howland
January 2017
Research Report 190

Research Report 190 describes a study by Frank Gilliland and colleagues that was funded under HEI’s Accountability research program. The investigators collected air quality data and lung function and respiratory symptoms in three cohorts of children who participated in the Children’s Health Study in Southern California. During the 20-year study period, nearly 20 major policy actions were implemented to reduce pollution from transportation and other sources. Gilliland and colleagues evaluated whether the improved air quality was associated with improved lung function and respiratory symptoms in these children.

Update Fall 2016

Health Effects Institute
October 2016
Newsletter

This issue of Update reports on a new study that explored the impact of Southern California air-quality regulations on children’s health; launch of the redesigned HEI Web site; new HEI Review Committee member Jennifer Peel; upcoming requests for applications; the sharing of HEI science at major Asian and European conferences; and HEI in the News.

Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Wuhan, China

Zhengmin Qian
Bin Zhang
Shengwen Liang
Jing Wang
Shaoping Yang
Ke Hu
Edwin Trevathan
Rong Yang
Qijie Li
Louise H Flick
Ronghua Hu
Zhen Huang
Yimin Zhang
Shixiang Hu
Jing Wang
Longjiao Shen
Yuan Lu
Hui Peng
Yuzhen Yu
Li Yang
Wei Chen
Wenjin Liu
Wei Zhang
September 2016
Research Report 189

HEI Research Report 189 describes a study by Dr. Zhengmin Qian conducted in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China. Wuhan experiences temperature extremes and generally has higher air pollution levels than those seen in the United States and Europe. Dr. Qian examined whether increased exposures to air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) during vulnerable pregnancy periods were associated with increased rates of preterm birth, low birth weight, or intrauterine growth retardation, using both a cohort and nested case-control design.

Burden of Disease Attributable to Coal-Burning and Other Air Pollution Sources in China

GBD MAPS Working Group
August 2016
Special Report 20

Special Report 20, Burden of Disease Attributable to Coal-Burning and Other Major Sources of Air Pollution in China, provides the first comprehensive assessment of the current and predicted burdens of disease attributable to coal-burning and other major sources of particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) in China at the national and provincial levels. It is the result of the Global Burden of Disease – Major Air Pollution Sources (GDB MAPS) project, an international collaboration of Tsinghua University, the Health Effects Institute, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), and the University of British Columbia. The analyses show that coal combustion is the single largest source of air pollution-related health impact, contributing to some 366,000 premature deaths in China in 2013, with industry and household combustion as major contributors as well. The report also indicates that health burdens could grow substantially by 2030 if no further action is taken. 燃煤和其他主要大气污染源所致的中国疾病负担 (Special Report 20 in Chinese)

 

燃煤和其他主要大气污染源所致的中国疾病负担

GBD MAPS 工作组
August 2016
专题报告20

专题报告20,燃煤和其他主要大气污染源所致的中国疾病负担。报告从国家与省级层面,对中国燃煤及其他主要空气污染源释放的细颗粒物(PM2.5)所造成当前及未来疾病负担进行了第一次综合评估。此项报告由清华大学、健康影响研究所、健康指标和评估研究所(IHME)与不列颠哥伦比亚大学联合发布,是全球疾病负担-主要空气污染源(GDB MAPS)这一国际合作项目的研究结果。分析表明,燃煤是造成空气污染、影响健康的最大元凶。2013年,仅燃煤一项在中国就导致约36.6万人过早死亡,其中以工业与民用燃煤影响最为重大。报告还指出,如不采取进一步行动,到2030年健康负担将会大幅增加。Burden of Disease Attributable to Coal-Burning and Other Air Pollution Sources in China (in English)

Adverse Reproductive Health Outcomes and Exposure to Gaseous and Particulate-Matter Air Pollution in Pregnant Women

Jun Wu
Olivier Laurent
Lianfa Li
Jianlin Hu
Michael Kleeman
July 2016
Research Report 188

HEI Research Report 188 analyzes associations between increases in various air pollution exposure metrics and increased risks of preterm birth. Jun Wu was funded under HEI's Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award to conduct a comprehensive nested, case-control study of air pollution and adverse birth and pregnancy outcomes, using birth certificate data collected in California from 2001 to 2008. 

Update Summer 2016

Health Effects Institute
July 2016
Newsletter

This edition of Update reports on HEI's presentation of GBD MAPS results at a major Chinese air pollution meeting; HEI's Annual Conference in Denver in May; two new HEI research reports on the effects of air pollution on birth and pregnancy outcomes; a meeting of the National Association of Clean Air Agencies at which HEI shared research results with diverse experts and regulators; and HEI's participation at a EPA Clean Air Act Advisory Committee meeting in June.

New Methods to Detect Aerosol Chemical Composition-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in a Biological Model

Richard E Peltier
Whitney Huynh
Pallavi Pant
Massimiliano Mascelloni
June 2016
Unpublished report

This unpublished research report describes a two-year study aimed at building and testing a method for the semi-continuous measurement of reactive oxidant species (ROS) generated by particulate matter in a cellular assay. The assay relied on the use of a compound that turns into a fluorescent product upon reaction with ROS generated in the cells.

Causal Inference Methods for Estimating Long-Term Health Effects of Air Quality Regulations

Corwin M. Zigler
Chanmin Kim
Christine Choirat
John Barrett Hansen
Yun Wang
Lauren Hund
Jonathan Samet
Gary King
Francesca Dominici
May 2016
Research Report 187

HEI Research Report 187 was funded as part of HEI’s Accountability research program, aimed at understanding whether actions to improve air quality have resulted in improved health outcomes. Corwin M. Zigler and his colleagues used existing and newly developed statistical methods to assess whether an intervention was causally related to changes in pollutant levels or health outcomes, and applied their methods in two well-developed case studies: effects of air quality interventions to reduce PM10 concentrations in nonattainment areas and the impact of installation of scrubber technologies on emissions from coal-fired power plants.

Ambient and Controlled Particle Exposures as Triggers for Acute ECG Changes

David Q. Rich
Annette Peters
Alexandra Schneider
Wojciech Zareba
Susanne Breitner
David Oakes
Jelani Wiltshire
Cathleen Kane
Mark W Frampton
Regina Hampel
Philip K Hopke
Josef Cyrys
Mark J Utell
May 2016
Research Report 186

Using data from four previously completed studies (two panel studies and two controlled-exposure studies), David Rich and Annette Peters and their teams investigated potential mechanisms behind the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and ultrafine particles on changes in cardiac rhythm, including heart rate variability and other ECG parameters.

Update Spring 2016

Health Effects Institute
May 2016
Newsletter

This newsletter reports on a third study under way in Europe to complete the comprehensive HEI effort to examine the potential health effects of air pollution at low levels; HEI's new research program focusing on the health effects of exposure to traffic-related pollution; and the GBD MAPS team's presentation of preliminary data on coal’s impact on health in China. In addition, it covers the publication of two new research reports covering novel statistical methods for studying pollutant mixtures and a “direct” approach evaluating the impact of air quality interventions through “causal inference” methods, as well as the retirement of HEI's Aaron Cohen, a strategy session held with HEI's sponsors, and HEI in the news.

Modeling of Multipollutant Profiles and Spatially Varying Health Effects with Applications to Indicators of Adverse Birth Outcomes

John Molitor
Eric Coker
Michael Jerrett
Beate Ritz
Arthur Li
April 2016
Research Report 183, Part III

This report is Part 3 of HEI Research Report 183, Development of Statistical Methods for Multipollutant Research. It describes a study to develop and apply statistical methods to analyze the effects of multipollutant exposures on health, expanding beyond the two-pollutant approaches used in many studies to date. HEI funded three innovative studies in recent years to improve the tools for analyzing complex multipollutant exposures. In this last report from these studies, John Molitor and colleagues describe a Bayesian framework to identify spatial clusters of air pollution exposures — and other covariates such as socioeconomic status — and estimated pregnancy outcomes associated with those clusters, using a data set for Los Angeles county. 

Update Winter 2016

Health Effects Institute
February 2016
Newsletter

The Winter Update newsletter features the upcoming HEI Annual Conference (sign up now!), a new member of the Review Committee, and a Global Burden of Disease Workshop in Mumbai, India, to calculate air pollution’s impact on global health. Also read about HEI’s study of changes in emissions in tunnels with the advent of new technology and HEI’s pending move to a new home.

Annual Report

Health Effects Institute
January 2016
Annual Report

The 2015 Annual Report – Vision 2020 - describes HEI’s partnership with scientists, government, industry, and the environmental community to provide high-quality, impartial, and relevant science to inform public policy decisions about air quality and public health. The report highlights the vision underlying HEI’s Strategic Plan 2015-2020 and outlines HEI’s contributions in the past year to important questions.

Analysis of Personal and Home Characteristics Associated with the Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air in the RIOPA Study

Patrick H Ryan
Cole Brokamp
Zhi-Hua (Tina) Fan
MB Rao
December 2015
Research Report 185

This report describes a study by Dr. Patrick Ryan at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. He used the RIOPA data – which HEI has made available to all scientists on the Web to further explore relationships among the elemental composition of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 samples collected at participant’s homes. His analyses included traditional and novel approaches to comparing the samples.

Executive Summary. The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

Health Effects Institute
December 2015
Communication - ACES

This Executive Summary of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) summarizes the main findings of emissions and health testing of new-technology heavy-duty diesel engines capable of meeting US 2007/2010 and EURO VI/6 diesel emissions standards. The results demonstrated the dramatic improvements in emissions and the absence of any significant health effects (especially cancer). ACES was the most comprehensive examination done to date of engines meeting the US 2007 and 2010 on-road standards.

Diesel Emissions and Lung Cancer: An Evaluation of Recent Epidemiological Evidence for Quantitative Risk Assessment

HEI Diesel Epidemiology Panel
November 2015
Special Report 19

Special Report 19 contains the intensive review and analysis of the newest studies of mine and truck workers exposed to older diesel engine exhaust conducted by an Expert Panel appointed by the HEI Board of Directors. In its report, HEI's Diesel Epidemiology Panel concluded that the studies are well prepared and are useful for applying the data to calculate the cancer risk due to exposure to diesel exhaust.

Update Fall 2015

Health Effects Institute
November 2015
Newsletter

This newsletter reports on the approval of new HEI studies to examine potential health effects of low-level pollution; the completion of a review of diesel exhaust studies (Special Report 19) by an HEI-appointed panel; and WHO's plans to update global air quality guidelines. In addition, it announces the publication of an HEI report taking a closer look at exposure to PM2.5 and its composition and a report evaluating rapid heart rhythm changes after exposure to PM. HEI also announces the recipient of the 2015 Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award and the appointment of three new HEI Research Committee members.

Strategic Research Agenda on the Potential Impacts of 21st Century Oil and Natural Gas Development in the Appalachian Region and Beyond

HEI Special Scientific Committee on Unconventional Oil and Gas Development in the Appalachian Basin
November 2015
Strategic Research Agenda

Unconventional oil and natural gas development is a driving force behind significant economic and energy policy shifts in the United States and the world today. Technological advances in development are substantially increasing energy supplies, while at the same time outpacing the scientific research that can answer questions about the development’s potential effects.

Update Summer 2015

Health Effects Institute
August 2015
Newsletter

This issue reports on the publication of an Executive Summary highlighting ACES new-technology diesel results, which describes significant improvements in new diesel engines; a conference showcasing HEI science and emerging research opportunities; interest worldwide in ACES findings; how HEI staff are communicating results; the status of the oil and gas research agenda being drafted by HEI; and the status of the MOSES testing of ozone study subjects.

HEI Investigators' Guide. Preparing the Final Report

Health Effects Institute
August 2015
Guide for Authors

The Investigators' Guide contains important information for HEI-funded investigators who are getting ready to write the Final Report for their study. The Guide introduces HEI's review, editing, and publication process and lists requirements for submission of the report. The Guide also contains detailed instructions on reference and text styles, tables and illustrations, and submission of electronic art.

Development of Statistical Methods for Multipollutant Research

Brent A Coull
et al.
Eun Sug Park
et al.
June 2015
Research Report 183, Parts 1 and 2

This report contains two studies, by Drs. Brent A Coull and Eun Sug Park and their colleagues, and a Commentary discussing each study individually, as well as an Integrative Discussion of the two. 
Part 1. Statistical Learning Methods for the Effects of Multiple Air Pollution ConstituentsBrent A. Coull et al.
Part 2. Development of Enhanced Statistical Methods for Assessing Health Effects Associated with an Unknown Number of Major Sources of Multiple Air Pollutants. Eun Sug Park et al. 

Immune Effects of Episodic Ozone and Particulate Matter Exposure During Postnatal Development

Fern Tablin
Lisa Miller
Philip Kass
June 2015
Unpublished Report

This unpublished report describes a two-year study to evaluate the effect of exposure to particulate matter and ozone on immune function in nonhuman primates (infant rhesus macaques) during early life. The investigators conducted a panel study that took advantage of "natural" exposures in the outdoor nonhuman primate colony maintained at the California National Primate Center, a research unit of the University of California–Davis.

Update Spring 2015

Health Effects Institute
May 2015
Newsletter

Contents: HEI's Strategic Plan for 2015–2020 Now Under Way;  Greenbaum Chairs NRC Review of U.S. Climate, Health Assessment; O'Keefe Closes Out Successful Run on Key Air Advisory Committee; Communicating Results - HEI Science Highlighted at EPA Workshops HEI in the News - Wide Audience for ACES Findings; Novel Statistical Methods for Studying Pollutant Mixtures; Journal Spotlights NPACT Studies; Eyes on the Future - HEI Sponsors Meet with Research Committee to Discuss the Path Forward;  Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award Announced

HEI's Strategic Plan 2015-2020

Health Effects Institute
May 2015
Strategic Plan

HEI has launched its Strategic Plan for Understanding the Health Effects of Air Pollution for the coming five years, guiding HEI’s direction based on extensive input from sponsors, the scientific community, environmental organizations, and others. The Plan seeks to produce timely and credible science to inform key decisions with one overarching theme: informing decisions on air quality and on climate-driven technology for 2015-2020…and beyond.

Update Winter 2015

Health Effects Institute
February 2015
Newsletter

Contents: Major Report on Newest Diesel Engines - No Evidence of Lung Cancer in Rats after Lifetime Exposure to New-Technology Diesel Exhaust; Sign Up Now for HEI's Annual Conference 2015 in Philadelphia in May; Nominations for Committee Membership Invited; Progress on Strategic Research Plan for Oil and Gas; Better Air Quality Meeting in Sri Lanka

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES): Lifetime Cancer and Non-Cancer Assessment in Rats Exposed to New-Technology Diesel Exhaust

Jacob D McDonald
Jeffrey C Bemis
Lance M Hallberg
Daniel J Conklin
January 2015
Research Report 184

This report describes four studies conducted as a single phase (Phase 3B) of HEI's Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) program, which was designed to evaluate the emissions and health changes resulting from substantially improved diesel engines required under the U.S. EPA 2007–2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Rule. These studies were conducted by Drs. Jacob D. McDonald of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Jeffrey C. Bemis of Litron Laboratories, Rochester, New York, Lance M. Hallberg of the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, and Daniel J. Conklin, University of Louisville, Kentucky.

Synergistic Effects of Particulate Matter and Substrate Stiffness on Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

Thomas H Barker
Marilyn M Dysart
Ashley C Brown
Alison M Douglas
Vincent F Fiore
Armistead G Russell
November 2014
Research Report 182

This report is a study focused on lung tissue repair processes after inflammation and injury resulting from exposure to particulate matter (PM) from combustion sources. Dr. Thomas H. Barker of Georgia Institute of Technology, a recipient of HEI's Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, and his colleagues tested the hypotheses that alveolar epithelial cells grown on substrates of increasing stiffness would transition to mesenchymal cells — an early step along the pathway to fibrosis — and that the addition of fine PM would enhance these effects.

Update Fall 2014

Health Effects Institute
October 2014
Newsletter

Contents: Setting a Course for 2020: The HEI Strategic Plan; RFA Seeks New Epidemiologic Studies; HEI Launches New International Project // Group of Experts Will Estimate Global Burden of Disease from Specific Major Air Pollution Sources; Communicating Results of Research; How PM May Affect Epithelial Cell Differentiation; Progress on Major Ozone Study; Panel Tours Gas Well Sites

Update Summer 2014

Health Effects Institute
August 2014
Newsletter

Contents: Conference Eyes Future of Air Pollution Research, Policy; Leading Health Expert to Chair Review Committee; Workshop on Unconventional Oil and Gas Development; Developing New Models for Ultrafine Particles and Air Toxics Exposures; Sharing Insight from NPACT Setting Research Priorities (Research Planning Meeting); HEI in the News; HEI Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Taking Shape

Development and Application of an Aerosol Screening Model for Size-Resolved Urban Aerosols

Charles O Stanier
Sang-Rin Lee
June 2014
Research Report 179

This report describes a study in which a model to simulate the dispersion of ultrafine particles near roadways was developed and tested. Understanding what happens to ultrafines near roadways – and how that influences exposure – is a key area that HEI's Perspectives 3 on ultrafines (2013) identified. Dr. Charles Stanier at the University of Iowa–Iowa City, a recipient of HEI's Walter A.

Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data

Stuart Batterman
Feng-Chiao Su
Shi Li
Bhramar Mukherjee
Chunrong Jia
June 2014
Research Report 181

This report describes a study to identify factors that influence exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and VOC mixtures. Dr. Stuart Batterman at the University of Michigan–Ann Arbor and colleagues used the extensive data that HEI posted on the Web from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study (HEI Research Report 130 Parts I and II), and data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), to characterize exposure distributions for 15 VOCs, with an emphasis on high concentrations. Factors examined included geographic location, weather, characteristics of participants' homes, and specific activities, such as pumping gas.

Update Spring 2014

Health Effects Institute
May 2014
Newsletter

Contents: HEI Research Committee Welcomes a New Epidemiologist; Ultrafine Particles Study Focuses on School Buses; New Initiative Addresses Unconventional Oil and Gas Development; A Growing Audience for HEI's Web Site; Sponsors, Research Committee Meet in Boston;  Assessing Diesel Epidemiology Studies; Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award

Characterizing Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants In and Around School Buses

Yifang Zhu
Qunfang Zhang
March 2014
Research Report 180

This report describes a study that assessed levels of ultrafine particles and other pollutants around diesel engine school buses and identified factors contributing to those levels. Dr. Yifang Zhu at the University of California–Los Angeles, a recipient of HEI's Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, measured pollutant levels in and around school buses while driving, while idling, before and after retrofitting with a diesel particle filter and/or oxidation catalyst, and before and after installing an in-cabin filtration system.

Update Winter 2014

Health Effects Institute
February 2014
Newsletter

Contents: ACES Phase 2 Study Shows Dramatic Reductions in Emissions from Newer Diesel Engines; Annual Conference in D.C. Area Will Spotlight Science to Inform the Future; HEI Hosts Diesel Epidemiology Workshop; Making Data on Air Pollution and Health Accessible;  New Funding Opportunities: Traffic Related Exposure Studies / HEI Seeks Research on Non-Tailpipe and Tailpipe Emissions Near Urban Roads and in Tunnels; Window on Tomorrow: Building the HEI Strategic Plan 2015–2020

New Statistical Approaches to Semiparametric Regression with Application to Air Pollution Research

James M Robins
Peng Zhang
Rajeev Ayyagari
Roger Logan
Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
Lingling Li
Thomas Lumley
Aad van der Vaart
November 2013
Research Report 175

This report describes semiparametric methods for epidemiologic investigations of the short-term effects of air pollution on health, intended specifically to improve the reliability of point estimates and confidence intervals. Dr. James Robins of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues developed the new methods, used simulations to compare them with other methods, and applied them to a large epidemiologic data set from the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to assess their effectiveness. The report is accompanied by a short editorial to assist the reader in understanding this study and its contributions to epidemiologic methods for air pollution.

Update Fall 2013

Health Effects Institute
November 2013
Newsletter

Contents: HEI NPACT Studies Examine Effects of PM Sources and Components; New Studies Aim to Improve Knowledge of Exposure to Traffic; New Statisticians for the Research and Review Committees; HEI Investigator Wins Friedlander Award; Scientists Share Global Perspectives at ISEE Conference; O'Keefe Delivers Inaugural Address at Major Emissions Control Meeting in Delhi

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative: Integrated Epidemiologic and Toxicologic Studies of the Health Effects of Particulate Matter Components

Morton Lippmann
Lung Chi Chen
Terry Gordon
Kazuhiko Ito
George D Thurston
October 2013
Research Report 177

This report describes the results of a study of long-term effects of PM components in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II cohort; a time-series study of short-term effects of PM components on cardiovascular and other diseases in people living in 150 U.S. cities; and two toxicologic studies in animals exposed by inhalation to concentrated ambient particles, and in animals and human cells exposed to particles collected on filters from five different airsheds across the United States. This report, along with Research Report 178 (Vedal et al.), is one of HEI's National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) studies, which describe the most systematic multidisciplinary studies to date to investigate the health effects of PM components in humans and animal models at locations across the United States where the effects of PM sources and components may differ. The report includes a Commentary and a Synthesis by the NPACT Review Panel.

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative Report on Cardiovascular Effects

Sverre Vedal
Matthew J Campen
Jacob D McDonald
Joel D Kaufman
Timothy V Larson
Paul D Sampson
Lianne Sheppard
Christopher D Simpson
Adam A Szpiro
October 2013
Research Report 178

This report describes the results of two cohort studies of long-term effects of PM components on subclinical and clinical markers of cardiovascular diseases and a toxicologic study in which animals were exposed to mixtures of vehicle engine emissions and non-vehicular PM and analyzed for vascular effects. Section 3 contains an integrated discussion of the studies. This report, along with Research Report 177 (Lippmann et al.), is one of HEI's National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) studies, which describe the most systematic multidisciplinary studies to date to investigate the health effects of PM components in humans and animal models at locations across the United States where the effects of PM sources and components may differ. The report includes a Commentary and a Synthesis by the NPACT Review Panel.

Effect of Air Pollution Control on Mortality and Hospital Admissions in Ireland

Douglas W Dockery
David Q Rich
Patrick G Goodman
Luke Clancy
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Prethibha George
Tania Kotlov
July 2013
Research Report 176

This report revisits an earlier study of the air pollution and health impacts of a coal ban in Dublin, Ireland, and then extends the analysis to coal bans in 11 additional Irish cities. Dr. Douglas W. Dockery of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues evaluated changes in black smoke and sulfur dioxide concentrations for the 5 years before and after the coal bans and examined how those changes related to mortality and hospitalization rates in the counties affected by the bans, as compared with other counties where coal bans were not implemented. They also included in their analysis other trends in health and social factors that were occurring at the same time.

Update Summer 2013

Health Effects Institute
July 2013
Newsletter

Contents: Annual Conference Showcases HEI's Scientific Program; Did the Irish Coal Bans Improve Air Quality and Health? Novel Approaches to Analyzing Health Effects Data; Board Seeks New Review Committee Chair; HEI Moving to Improve the Way it Communicates; Expert Group Conducts Peer Review of ACES Pathology Results

Update Spring 2013

Health Effects Institute
May 2013
Newsletter

This newsletter reports on an expert panel named to review diesel epidemiology studies, two HEI Asia workshops on the global health impact of air pollution, and a meeting of HEI's Research Committee and sponsors reviewing progress and priorities, as well as HEI in the news.