Particulate Matter

This page has a list of publications and news articles related to Air Pollution - Particulate Matter. Find more information about our research on Air Pollution.

Research Report 105
George D Leikauf
Susan A McDowell
Scott C Wesselkamper
Clay R Miller
William D Hardie
Kelly Gammon
Pratim P Biswas
Thomas R Korfhagen
Cindy J Bachurski
Jonathan S Wiest
Klaus Willeke
Eula Bingham
John E Leikauf
Bruce J Aronow
et al.
December 2001

Dr. Leikauf and colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center hypothesized that the response of mice exposed to high concentrations of inhaled nickel particles was under genetic control. Using nickel, a transition element shown to cause adverse effects at high concentrations in ambient air, the investigators sought to identify the genes involved in controlling the inflammatory and toxic effects of continuous exposure to nickel particles.

Research Report 106
Lester Kobzik
Carroll-Ann W Goldsmith
Yao Yu Ning
Guozhong Qin
Bill Morgan
Amy Imrich
Joy Lawrence
GG Krishna Murthy
Paul J Catalano
December 2001

Dr. Lester Kobzik and colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health used a mouse model of asthma to evaluate how inhaling pollutants affects the airways. The mice were sensitized to the allergen ovalbumin, which induces a lung condition in the mice similar to that found in people with asthma. The investigators hypothesized that exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) plus ozone would cause a synergistic (or greater-than-additive) response in the mice.

Research Report 104
Renaud Vincent
Premkumari Kumarathasan
Patrick Goegan
Stephen G Bjarnason
Josée Guénette
Denis Bérubé
Ian Y Adamson
Suzanne Desjardins
Richard T Burnett
Frederick J Miller
Bruno Battistini
October 2001

Dr. Renaud Vincent and his colleagues of Health Canada, Ottawa, hypothesized that ambient PM would cause changes in certain cardiovascular parameters. The investigators implanted rats with radiotransmitters to collect continuous data and indwelling catheters for repeated blood sampling. The animals were exposed to clean air or one of four types of resuspended particles: ambient particles (Ottawa dust), ambient particles that had been washed in water to remove soluble components, diesel soot, or carbon black.

Research Report 96
Günter Oberdörster
Jacob N Finkelstein
Carl Johnston
Robert Gelein
Christopher Cox
Raymond Baggs
Alison CP Elder
August 2001

Dr Günter Oberdörster and colleagues at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry hypothesized that inhaled ultrafine particles induce an inflammatory response in the airways of mice and rats and that animals with preexisting airway inflammatory conditions may be particularly vulnerable. The investigators focused on inhaled carbon and platinum particles because these elements are constituents of particles found in urban atmospheres.

Perspectives 1
Health Effects Institute
June 2001

Perspectives 1 is the first of a series produced by the HEI Health Review Committee to integrate findings across several HEI studies or entire research programs. The intent is to describe and interpret results bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience in terested in environmental health.

Research Report 101
Per Gerde
Bruce A Muggenburg
Margot Lundborg
Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Alan R Dahl
April 2001

Dr. Gerde and colleagues at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute examined the effects of organic compounds in diesel exhaust such as genotoxic polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAHs). The investigators removed most of the organic compounds from diesel exhaust particles and bound radioactive Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a type of PAH is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals, to them. They exposed the lower respiratory tract of three dogs to the particles and measured the levels of particle-bound BaP and free BaP released from particles in the peripheral region of the lungs.

Research Report 99
Harvey Checkoway
Drew Levy
Lianne Sheppard
Joel D Kaufman
Jane Koenig
David Siscovick
December 2000

Dr Checkoway and colleagues at the University of Washington tested the primary hypothesis that increases in daily fine particle levels were related to increased risk of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. Sudden cardiac arrest and questionnaire data, and exposure data were obtained from the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency (Seattle WA). The investigators used a case-crossover study design; for each case of sudden cardiac arrest, a time period when the person was disease free was selected as a matched "referent" period.

Research Report 98
H-Erich Wichmann
Claudia Spix
Thomas Tuch
Gabriele Wölke
Annette Peters
Joachim Heinrich
Wolfgang Kreyling
Joachim Heyder
November 2000

Dr H-Erich Wichmann and colleagues at the National Research Center for Environment and Health in Germany prospectively studied the association of daily mortality data with the number and mass concentrations of ultrafine and fine particles in Erfurt, Germany. Concentrations were measured near a road and a time-series approach was used to look at short-term changes in particle concentration and concurrent deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes over a period of 3.5 years.

Research Report 97
Mark S Goldberg
John C Bailar III
Richard T Burnett
Jeffrey R Brook
Robyn Tamblyn
Yvette Bonvalot
Pierre Ernst
Kenneth M Flegel
Ravinder K Singh
Marie-France Valois
October 2000

Dr. Mark Goldberg and his colleagues at McGill University conducted a time-series study in Montreal using available data from the Quebec Health Insurance Plan and mortality and air pollution data to better the understanding of the mortality-particulate association. Because of the comprehensive nature of this health insurance database, the investigators were able to link individual deaths in Montreal to medical information up to 5 years before death.

Research Report 95
Morton Lippmann
Kazuhiko Ito
Arthur Nádas
Richard T Burnett
August 2000

Dr Morton Lippmann and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine attempted to identify and characterize components of PM and other air pollution mixtures that were associated with excess daily deaths and elderly hospital admissions in and around the area of Detroit, Michigan. Using publicly available data from 1985-1990 and 1992-1994, the investigators used statistical models to weigh the strength of one pollutant or two pollutants concurrently.