Particulate Matter

This page has a list of publications and news articles related to Air Pollution - Particulate Matter. Find more information about our research on Air Pollution.

Research Report 117
Debra L Laskin
Lisa Morio
Kimberly Hooper
Tsung-Hung Li
Brian Buckley
Barbara J Turpin
December 2003

Dr. Laskin and her colleagues at the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute at Rutgers University tested the hypothesis that oxidants in ambient air, such as hydrogen peroxide, may be transported by fine particulate matter into the lungs and thus contribute to lung tissue injury. The investigators used ammonium sulfate particles because of their prevalence in the ambient air of the eastern United States and their reportedly low toxicity in animals and humans.

Research Report 118
Henry Gong Jr
Constantinos Sioutas
William S Linn
December 2003

Dr. Henry Gong Jr and his colleagues at the Los Amigos Research and Education Institute used a Harvard ambient particle concentrator to assess the effects of exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on healthy and asthmatic people. 12 healthy individuals and 12 individuals with mild asthma were exposed to either filtered air or CAPs with a maximum exposure level of 200 µg/m3 for two hours while exercising intermittently on a stationary bicycle.

Research Report 112
Stephen T Holgate
Thomas Sandström
et al.
Stephen T Holgate
Robert B Devlin
et al.
December 2003

Stephen Holgate and his colleagues at the University of Southampton proposed that inflammatory changes in lung fluids and blood from humans exposed to PM were related to the chemical composition of the particles. He obtained samples from two human studies in which participants were exposed to diesel exhaust and concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). At a Swedish laboratory 25 healthy and 12 asthmatic participants were exposed to diesel exhaust or filtered air on separate days. At a US laboratory, 12 healthy participants were exposed to filtered air and 30 different healthy participants were exposed to a range of CAPs concentrations. All participants underwent bronchoscopy to obtain lung tissues and fluids to analyze inflammatory markers, including numbers of specific white blood cells, expression of activation markers, and levels of cytokines in addition to analysis of lung function, lung fluids, and blood.

Special Report
Health Effects Institute
May 2003

Over the past decade, time-series studies conducted in many cities have contributed information about the association between daily changes in concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) and daily morbidity and mortality. In 2002, however, investigators at Johns Hopkins University and at Health Canada identified issues in the statistical model used in the majority of time-series studies. This HEI Special Report details attempts to address several questions raised by these discoveries.

Communication 10
Health Effects Institute
April 2003

Communication 10 contains proceedings of a workshop held in Baltimore, MD, December 4–6 2002. The workshop sought to address the search for a "Diesel Signature": Do We Have a Diesel Signature? Where Do We Go From Here? Communication 10 includes a workshop summary and reports from speakers on: Health Studies of Diesel Particulate Matter; Future Trends of Diesel Emissions; Diesel and Gasoline Particle Characteristics; Approaches to Particle Characterization; Diesel Source Signature Studies; Emissions and Air Quality Studies; Data Analysis Approaches.

Research Report 114
Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
February 2003

Dr. Susanne Hering of Aerosol Dynamics Inc and her colleagues set out to design and validate a personal monitoring sampler for particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) that is suitable for subsequent chemical speciation work. The sampler intended to meet the measurement needs for PM2.5 mass concentration and several of its major constituents including elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates.

Research Report 110
Ann E Aust
James C Ball
Autumn A Hu
JoAnn S Lighty
Kevin R Smith
Ann M Straccia
John M Veranth
Willie C Young
December 2002

Dr. Aust and her colleagues at Utah State University and Ford Motor company hypothesized that transition metals (metals that can participate in possibly toxic oxidative reactions) associated with particulate matter are released within lung epithelial cells and catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. The investigators focused their study on coal fly ash that was produced in the laboratory and separated into four size fractions.

Research Report 111
Christine Nadziejko
Kaijie Fang
Lung Chi Chen
Beverly Cohen
Margaret Karpatkin
Arthur Nádas
October 2002

Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine evaluated the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators measured platelet number, blood cells counts, and levels of fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and factor VII of rats that were exposed to concentrated New York City particles and filtered air for 6 hours. Blood samples were obtained before and after exposure using an indwelling catheter.

Perspectives 2
Health Effects Institute
April 2002

Perspectives 2 is the second of a series produced by the HEI Health Review Committee to integrate findings across several HEI studies or entire research programs. The intent is to describe and interpret results bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience interested in environmental health.

Research Report 107
Alan W Gertler
et al.
Daniel Grosjean
et al.
January 2002

This report describes two studies that measured emissions in roadway tunnels. Dr. Alan Gertler and colleagues at the Desert Research Institute studied particulate matter emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel located on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Dr Daniel Grosjean and colleague at DGA, Inc studied carbonyl emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel and in the Caldecott Tunnel in California. The unique environment in tunnel studies allows the investigators to measure emission rates averaged over many vehicles, to determine the physical and chemical character of emissions under ambient conditions, and in some instances to compare current emissions with past emissions at the same location. Both groups of investigators also measured emissions at times when the proportions of gasoline engine vehicles and diesel engine vehicles differed, allowing them to estimate the differences between emissions from the two sources.