Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 231 - 240 of 298. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


Methods Development Toward the Measurement of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon–DNA Adducts by Mass Spectrometry

Roger W Giese
Paul Vouros
October 1993
Research Report 61

Both environmental and genetic factors are believed to contribute to the multistage process that results in carcinogenesis. Therefore, determining the health risks associated with exposure to known and suspected carcinogenic chemicals is essential for informed decision-making by regulatory agencies. Dr. Roger W. Giese and colleagues at Northeastern University developed sensitive and specific techniques for measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts, a class of DNA adducts associated with exposure to constituents of diesel emissions and other combustion products.

Failure of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to Enhance Lung Tumor Development in Hamsters

Hanspeter Witschi
Michael A Breider
Hildegard M Schuller
September 1993
Research Report 60

Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are highly reactive oxidant gases that are derived from the combustion of fossil fuels and the atmospheric transformation of these combustion products. A major unanswered question is whether or not exposure to oxidant air pollutants contributes to lung cancer. Dr. Witschi and colleagues at the University of California at Davis examined whether exposure to ozone or nitrogen dioxide enhances the development of tumors induced by the chemical carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN), particularly neuroendocrine tumors, in the respiratory tract of hamsters.

Characterization of Particle- and Vapor-Phase Organic Fraction Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Particle Trap and Regeneration Controls

Susan T Bagley
Linda D Gratz
David G Leddy
John H Johnson
July 1993
Research Report 56

Devices have been developed to reduce particle emissions from vehicles with diesel engines, such as a trap that filters the particles from the exhaust. Periodically, the trap is cleaned (regenerated) by electric heating, thereby burning the particles before they can clog the trap. There is concern that potentially harmful chemicals associated with the particles may be emitted from the trap during normal use and regeneration. Dr.

Research Priorities for Mobile Air Toxics

Health Effects Institute
June 1993
Communication 2

Communication 2 provides information to decision makers on research that is potentially capable of narrowing uncertainties related to the health effects of specific air toxics. This report is based on the Mobile Air Toxics Workshop held in Monterey, CA, December 4–6 1992.

Do Electric or Magnetic Fields Cause Adverse Health Effects?

Health Effects Institute
June 1993
Special Report

HEI's Research Plan to Narrow the Uncertainties. This report of the HEI Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research Planning Committee presents a 5-7 year research program intended to clarify whether or not there are adverse health effects from exposure of the public to EMF from electric power transmission, machinery, or household appliances.

Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Illness in Children, Part I: Health Outcomes, and Part II: Assessment of Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide

Jonathan M Samet
William E Lambert
June 1993
Research Report 58-I & II

This publications contains two reports by Drs. Jonathan M. Samet, John D. Spengler, and colleagues, who conducted a prospective investigation of 1,205 healthy infants living in homes with gas or electric stoves in Albuquerque, NM. Nitrogen dioxide exposures were carefully estimated from repeated measurements in multiple locations in the subjects' homes throughout the entire 18-month observation period. Respiratory illnesses were monitored prospectively using a surveillance system based on daily parental diaries of respiratory signs and symptoms. Parental reports of illness episodes were validated in a subset of the population by comparison with clinical diagnoses and microbiological testing. Potential confounding factors that influence respiratory infections were reduced by selecting subjects whose parents did not smoke or intend to use day-care services outside the home.

Determination of the Atherogenic Potential of Inhaled Carbon Monoxide

Arthur Penn
May 1993
Research Report 57

Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant. It is found in cigarette smoke and emissions from motor vehicles, industrial processes, and poorly ventilated combustion sources. Dr. Penn and his colleagues at New York University Medical Center sought to determine whether chronic exposure to ambient levels of carbon monoxide is also a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis because this disease is the leading contributor to deaths by heart attack and stroke in the United States.

Noninvasive Methods for Measuring Ventilation in Mobile Subjects

J Dennis McCool
Jonathan M Samet
May 1993
Research Report 59

This document contains two reports by Drs. McCool and Samet and their colleagues who were funded to develop and test methods for measuring ventilation in freely mobile subjects at home or at work. Drs. Dennis McCool and Domyung Paek at the Memorial Hospital in Rhode Island measured ventilation with a body surface displacement (BSD) model. Each subject wore wide elastic bands containing coated wire coils around the chest and abdomen and had special magnets affixed to the breastbone and navel, which yielded data about their breathing patterns, breath frequency, and ventilation. In the second study, Dr. Jonathan Samet and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University wanted to develop methods for estimating ventilation from heart rate for future epidemiologic studies. They used the Heartwatch, a portable, commercial device combining a small transmitter worn on the subject's chest with a wristwatch-style receiver that records heart rate.

Mutations Induced by 1-Nitrosopyrene and Related Compounds During DNA Recombination by These Compounds

Veronica M Maher
Nitai P Bhattacharyya
M Chia-Miao Mah
Janet Boldt
Jia-Ling Yang
J Justin McCormick
March 1993
Research Report 55

Nitropyrenes, which form during diesel fuel combustion, cause mutations and are carcinogenic in some animals. Dr. Veronica Maher and colleagues at Michigan State University studied the effect of nitropyrene-DNA adducts on gene mutation. The investigators exposed a specific gene, in culture, to each of two nitropyrene derivatives. They then (1) compared the number of adducts formed by each derivative, (2) analyzed the chemical structure of the adducts, and (3) determined in which region of the DNA the adducts formed.

Oxidant Injury to the Alveolar Epithelium: Biochemical and Pharmacologic Studies

Bruce A Freeman
Peter C Panus
Sadis Matalon
Barbara J Buckley
R Randall Baker
January 1992
Research Report 54

Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are significant outdoor and indoor air pollutants that can cause lung damage. Both are termed oxidant gases because the oxygen atoms they contain react with a variety of lung components and produce injury. Dr. Bruce Freeman and colleagues at the University of Alabama, Birmingham examined oxidant injury to alveolar epithelial cells and tested whether supplementing the levels of antioxidants would modify the cells' resistance to damage.