This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 201 - 210 of 296. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.

The Potential Health Effects of Oxygenates Added to Gasoline. A Review of the Current Literature

Health Effects Institute
April 1996
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Oxygenates Evaluation Committee. Oxygenated fuel (usually referred to as oxyfuel) was formulated to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and contains at least 2.7% oxygen by adding methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol. Reformulated gasoline was formulated to help reduce ground-level ozone concentrations and contains at least 2% oxygen, has a reduced content of benzene and other aromatic compounds, and produces limited emissions of total air toxics. The introduction of fuels containing oxygenates elicited concerns from workers and the general public in some areas, including reports of unpleasant odors, headaches, or other symptoms attributed to the fuels, and questions about their effects on the cost of gasoline, the performance of engines, and fuel economy. This Special Report summarizes an intensive review of (1) the existing science of the health effects of oxygenates, (2) the risk evaluations done by the EPA in 1993 and 1994, and (3) in a qualitative way, the health effects of exposure to the new additives as they relate to the health effects of other pollutants whose levels in emissions change when fuels containing oxygenates are used.

Theoretical Approaches to Analyzing Complex Mixtures

Health Effects Institute
February 1996
Communication 4

Communication 4 contains four reports on analyzing complex mixtures. Three reports address analytical approaches to indentifying toxic compounds. One describes statistical approaches to analysis of interaction. (1) Immunoaffinity Chromatography in the Analysis of Toxic Effects of Complex Mixtures, William E. Bechtold (2) Stationary-Phase Programming for Liquid Chromatography: A New Concept for Separating Complex Mixtures, John G. Dorsey (3) Supercritical Separation and Molecular Bioassay Technologies Applied to Complex Mixtures, David L. Springer (4) Using the Parallel Coordinate Axis System to Analyze Complex Mixtures: Determining Biological Activity and Interactions Among Components, Chris Gennings.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part II: DNA Damage

Kurt Randerath
Kim L Putnam
Joe L Mauderly
Paige L Williams
Erika Randerath
December 1995
Research Report 68-II

Dr. Randerath's study was part of a large cancer bioassay conducted by Dr. Joe Mauderly and colleagues of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI). The investigators exposed F344/N rats by inhalation to clean (filtered) air or to one of two concentrations of either diesel exhaust or carbon (2.5 or 6.5 mg of particles/m3 of test atmosphere). Both Dr. Randerath and Dr. Mauderly measured DNA adducts in lung tissue samples from rats exposed at ITRI for different periods of time to the test atmospheres. Dr.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part III: Examination of Possible Target Genes

Steven A Belinsky
Charles E Mitchell
Kristen J Nikula
Deborah S Swafford
December 1995
Research Report 68-III

In Part III of this study, Dr. Belinsky and his associates at the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute examined lung tumors from rats that had inhaled high concentrations of diesel engine exhaust or carbon black particles (see Part I by Dr. Joe Mauderly). The investigators applied molecular biology techniques to measure mutations in selected genes in the DNA from the tumors.

DNA Adduct Formation and T-Lymphocyte Mutation Induction in F344 Rats Implanted with Tumorigenic Doses of 1,6-Dinitropyrene

Frederick A Beland
October 1995
Research Report 72

Dr. Beland and his associates at the University of Arkansas School of Medical Sciences developed an assay to measure mutations induced by dinitropyrenes, a class of diesel engine exhaust, in rats. The investigators analyzed the mutations in a selected gene in spleen T lymphocytes from rats treated with 1,6-dinitropyrene under conditions that induced lung tumors at the highest dose tested. They also examined DNA adduct levels in lung and liver tissues and in spleen lymphocytes and white blood cells.

Activation of Eicosanoid Metabolism in Human Airway Epithelial Cells by Products of Ozonolysis in Membrane Fatty Acids

George D Leikauf
Qiyu Zhao
Shaoying Zhou
Jeffrey Santrock
September 1995
Research Report 71

Dr. Leikauf and colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center examined the potential of the secondary products produced from the reaction of ozone with the fluids and the cell membrane of airway epithelial cells to cause biochemical effects. The investigators prepared aldehydes and hydroxyhydroperoxides of different carbon chain lengths. They tested these compounds and hydrogen peroxide in cultures of human airway epithelial cells grown from tissue explants.

Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: The Phase I Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. Phase I.A: Replication and Validation of Selected Studies

Health Effects Institute
August 1995
Special Report

The Phase I.A Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.A, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) reconstructed from original sources the data set for Philadelphia used in earlier studies and confirmed previous numerical results from analyzing these data; (2) developed an analytic approach (including new statistical methods) based on the Philadelphia data set; and (3) applied this approach to data sets for six locations: Philadelphia; Utah Valley; St. Louis, MO; Eastern Tennessee; Birmingham, AL; and Santa Clara County, CA.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part VI: Background and Study Design

Gary A Boorman
Paul J Catalano
Bernard J Jacobson
Debra A Kaden
Paul W Mellick
Kathleen M Nauss
Lousie M Ryan
August 1995
Research Report 65-VI

In 1987, the Health Effects Institute entered into a partnership with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to evaluate the effects of prolonged ozone exposure on F344/N rats. The NTP studies focused on carcinogenicity, while HEI supported eight studies that addressed the biochemical, functional, and structural endpoints and a biostatistical study that developed a sample allocation design and helped to integrate the research findings.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part XI: Integrative Summary

Paul J Catalano
Ling-Yi Chang
Jack R Harkema
Debra A Kaden
Jerold A Last
Paul W Mellick
William C Parks
Kent E Pinkerton
Bhandaru Radhakrishnamurthy
Louise M Ryan
John L Szarek
April 1995
Research Report 65-XI

In 1987, the Health Effects Institute entered into a partnership with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to evaluate the effects of prolonged ozone exposure on F344/N rats. The NTP studies focused on carcinogenicity. HEI funded eight independent research studies, including investigations of lung biochemical constituents, structural and cellular changes, lung function, and nasal structure and function.

Diesel Exhaust: Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects

Health Effects Institute
April 1995
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Working Group. Diesel engine emissions have the potential to cause adverse health effects, including cancer and other pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is difficult to distinguish the potential health risks attributable to exposure to diesel exhaust from those attributable to other air pollutants. For over a decade, HEI has supported a broad-based research program to evaluate the health risks of diesel emissions, including investigations of carcinogenesis, modeling studies, and emissions characterization. The purpose of this Special Report is to examine what is known, not known, and still uncertain about the health risks of exposure to diesel emissions.