This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

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National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part II: Morbidity and Mortality from Air Pollution in the United States

Jonathan M Samet
Scott L Zeger
Francesca Dominici
Frank Curriero
Ivan Coursac
Douglas W. Dockery
Joel Schwartz
Antonella Zanobetti
June 2000
Research Report 94-II

The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) was designed to select multiple locations based on the specific criteria of population size and availability of PM10 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) database, and to apply the same statistical procedures to all locations. Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues Johns Hopkins University conducted a time-series study of mortality effects in large US cities representing various levels of PM10 and gaseous pollutants.

National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part I: Methods and Methodologic Issues

Jonathan M Samet
Francesca Dominici
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Douglas W. Dockery
June 2000
Research Report 94-I

In an effort to address the uncertainties regarding the association between PM and daily mortality, and to determine the effects of other pollutants on this association, HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS). Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University, in collaboration with investigators at Harvard University, conducted this time-series study in large cities across the US where levels of PM and gaseous pollutants were varied.

Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles in Rats and Hamsters: An Exploratory Study

Terry Gordon
Christine Nadziejko
Lung Chi Chen
Richard B Schlesinger
April 2000
Research Report 93

Dr Terry Gordon and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of exposure to PM derived from New York City air on the rodent cardiopulmonary system. They hypothesized that PM would have greater, possibly fatal, effects in animals with compromised cardiopulmonary function than in normal animals. Gordon and colleagues exposed animals for up to 6 hours to concentrated particles that ranged from approximately 150 to 900 µg/m3.

1,3 Butadiene: Cancer, Mutations, and Adducts

Rogene F Henderson
Leslie Recio
Vernon E Walker
Ian A Blair
James A Swenberg
March 2000
Research Report 92

As part of the Health Effects Institute's air toxics research program, five independent studies were designed to advance our understanding of the roles of different metabolites in 1,3-butadiene (BD)-induced carcinogenesis and of the differences in sensitivity among species, and to develop methods for identifying and measuring biomarkers. The investigators focused on two BD metabolites (1,2-epoxy-3-butene [BDO] and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane [BDO2]) that researchers had suspected may play a role in BD carcinogenesis. The studies were conducted by Dr. Rogene Henderson (Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute), Dr. Leslie Recio (CIIT), Dr. Vernon Walker (New York State Department of Health), Dr. Ian Blair (University of Pennsylvania), and Dr. James Swenberg (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).

Mechanisms of Morbidity and Mortality from Exposure to Ambient Air Particles

John J Godleski
Richard L Verrier
Petros Koutrakis
Paul J Catalano
February 2000
Research Report 91

Dr John Godleski and colleagues at Harvard School of Public Health conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of particulate matter exposure in dogs, which share many features of the human cardiovascular system. The investigators hypothesized that particulate matter might affect the animals' cardiac function, leading to arrhythmia, and might induce inflammatory responses and changes in pulmonary mechanical measurements. Twelve dogs were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) that were 30 times their level in ambient Boston air.

Aldehydes (Nonanal and Hexanal) in Rat and Human Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid After Ozone Exposure

Mark W Frampton
William A Pryor
Rafael Cueto
Christopher Cox
Paul E Morrow
Mark J Utell
November 1999
Research Report 90

Dr. Pryor and colleagues at Louisiana State University developed methods for measuring ozone reaction products in in vitro models of lung lining fluids exposed to ozone and in lung fluids from rats exposed to ozone. During the study, Dr. Mark Frampton of the University of Rochester provided Pryor with lung fluids from humans exposed to air or ozone under controlled conditions. Frampton and colleagues exposed exercising smokers and nonsmokers to filtered air or to 0.22 parts per million (ppm) ozone for four hours.

Diesel Workshop: Building a Research Strategy to Improve Risk Assessment

Health Effects Institute
October 1999
Communication 7
Communication 7 contains proceedings from a workshop held in Stone Mountain, GA, March 7–9 1999. The following topics were discussed: Risk Assessments of Diesel Emissions: Framework for Building a Research Strategy; Chemical and Physical Properties of Diesel Engine Emissions; Assessment of Exposure to Diesel Engine Emissions; What Do Published Epidemiology Studies Tell Us About Exposure-Response?; What Will Epidemiology Studies Now Underway Tell Us About Exposure-Response?; What Will Epidemiology Studies Now Underway Tell Us About Exposure-Response?; and Consideration of Health Endpoints Other Than Cancer in Future Risk Assessments of Diesel Emissions.

The Health Effects of Fine Particles: Key Questions and the 2003 Review

Health Effects Institute
October 1999
Communication 8
Report of the Joint Meeting of the EC and HEI, held in Brussels, Belgium, January 14–15 1999. The following topics were discussed: What Are People Exposed To and Where Do Particles Come From? What Is Known About the Health Effects of PM? What New Research Results Are Emerging? and Outstanding Questions and Gaps for 2003 and Beyond.

Reproductive and Offspring Developmental Effects Following Maternal Inhalation Exposure to Methanol in Nonhuman Primates

Thomas Burbacher
October 1999
Research Report 89

In an effort to improve air quality and decrease dependence on petroleum, alternative fuels such as methanol have been considered to substitute for gasoline or diesel fuel. Methanol is also a candidate to provide the hydrogen for fuel cells. Before people are exposed to increased concentrations of methanol, the potential health effects of such exposures require study. Dr. Burbacher and colleagues of the University of Washington studied the effects of long-term exposure to methanol vapors on metabolism and reproduction in adult female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and developmental effects in their offspring, who were exposed prenatally to methanol. 

Morphometric Analysis of Alveolar Responses of F344 Rats to Subchronic Inhalation of Nitric Oxide

Robert R Mercer
September 1999
Research Report 88

In a follow-up study to previous research, Dr. Mercer and colleagues at Duke University exposed three groups of rats continuously for six weeks to 2 or 6 ppm nitric oxide (NO) or to filtered air to learn more about the toxicity of NO so as to compare it with two other important oxidants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). At the end of the exposure period he used an electron microscope to measure the number of holes in the alveolar septa and to observe other structural changes, such as in the surface area and the number and type of other abnormalities in the alveolar septa.