Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 171 - 180 of 317. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


Research Directions to Improve Estimates of Human Exposure and Risk from Diesel Exhaust

Health Effects Institute
April 2002
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Epidemiology Working Group. The Diesel Epidemiology Working Group was formed in the fall of 2000 to (1) review reports from 6 diesel feasibility studies funded by HEI to provide information on potential study populations and on exposure assessment methods; and (2) consider the results of the feasibility studies and other ongoing research in order to develop a new research agenda to seek better information for quantitative risk assessment of lung cancer and other chronic diseases that may result from exposure to diesel exhaust. The 6 feasibility studies described in this report were funded by HEI to provide insight about whether a new retrospective or prospective epidemiologic study could provide data to improve estimates of cancer risk from exposure to diesel exhaust, and about whether new methods of exposure analysis would allow us to reevaluate older epidemiologic studies.

Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Engines Measured in Highway Tunnels

Alan W Gertler
et al.
Daniel Grosjean
et al.
January 2002
Research Report 107

This report describes two studies that measured emissions in roadway tunnels. Dr. Alan Gertler and colleagues at the Desert Research Institute studied particulate matter emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel located on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Dr Daniel Grosjean and colleague at DGA, Inc studied carbonyl emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel and in the Caldecott Tunnel in California. The unique environment in tunnel studies allows the investigators to measure emission rates averaged over many vehicles, to determine the physical and chemical character of emissions under ambient conditions, and in some instances to compare current emissions with past emissions at the same location. Both groups of investigators also measured emissions at times when the proportions of gasoline engine vehicles and diesel engine vehicles differed, allowing them to estimate the differences between emissions from the two sources.

Pathogenomic Mechanisms for Particulate Matter Induction of Acute Lung Injury and Inflammation in Mice

George D Leikauf
Susan A McDowell
Scott C Wesselkamper
Clay R Miller
William D Hardie
Kelly Gammon
Pratim P Biswas
Thomas R Korfhagen
Cindy J Bachurski
Jonathan S Wiest
Klaus Willeke
Eula Bingham
John E Leikauf
Bruce J Aronow
et al.
December 2001
Research Report 105

Dr. Leikauf and colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center hypothesized that the response of mice exposed to high concentrations of inhaled nickel particles was under genetic control. Using nickel, a transition element shown to cause adverse effects at high concentrations in ambient air, the investigators sought to identify the genes involved in controlling the inflammatory and toxic effects of continuous exposure to nickel particles.

Effects of Combined Ozone and Air Pollution Particle Exposure in Mice

Lester Kobzik
Carroll-Ann W Goldsmith
Yao Yu Ning
Guozhong Qin
Bill Morgan
Amy Imrich
Joy Lawrence
GG Krishna Murthy
Paul J Catalano
December 2001
Research Report 106

Dr. Lester Kobzik and colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health used a mouse model of asthma to evaluate how inhaling pollutants affects the airways. The mice were sensitized to the allergen ovalbumin, which induces a lung condition in the mice similar to that found in people with asthma. The investigators hypothesized that exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) plus ozone would cause a synergistic (or greater-than-additive) response in the mice.

Inhalation Toxicology of Urban Ambient Particulate Matter: Acute Cardiovascular Effects in Rats

Renaud Vincent
Premkumari Kumarathasan
Patrick Goegan
Stephen G Bjarnason
Josée Guénette
Denis Bérubé
Ian Y Adamson
Suzanne Desjardins
Richard T Burnett
Frederick J Miller
Bruno Battistini
October 2001
Research Report 104

Dr. Renaud Vincent and his colleagues of Health Canada, Ottawa, hypothesized that ambient PM would cause changes in certain cardiovascular parameters. The investigators implanted rats with radiotransmitters to collect continuous data and indwelling catheters for repeated blood sampling. The animals were exposed to clean air or one of four types of resuspended particles: ambient particles (Ottawa dust), ambient particles that had been washed in water to remove soluble components, diesel soot, or carbon black.

Acute Pulmonary Effects of Ultrafine Particles in Rats and Mice

Günter Oberdörster
Jacob N Finkelstein
Carl Johnston
Robert Gelein
Christopher Cox
Raymond Baggs
Alison CP Elder
August 2001
Research Report 96

Dr Günter Oberdörster and colleagues at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry hypothesized that inhaled ultrafine particles induce an inflammatory response in the airways of mice and rats and that animals with preexisting airway inflammatory conditions may be particularly vulnerable. The investigators focused on inhaled carbon and platinum particles because these elements are constituents of particles found in urban atmospheres.

Evaluation of Human Health Risk from Cerium Added to Diesel Fuel

Health Effects Institute
August 2001
Communication 9

The fuel efficiency and durability of diesel technology are particularly desirable in the transportation and construction industries. Concerns about the health effects of diesel particulate emissions have led to progressively stricter emission standards, which can be met only through new technologic advances and fuel modifications. The cerium-based fuel additive Eolys, used in conjunction with a particulate filter, is one of the approaches being considered. However, this additive will result in emissions of cerium compounds and an increase in cerium in the ambient air and soil.

Characterization and Mechanisms of Chromosomal Alterations Induced by Benzene in Mice and Humans

David A Eastmond
Maik Schuler
Chris Frantz
Hongwei Chen
Robert Parks
Ling Wang
Leslie Hasegawa
June 2001
Research Report 103

Dr. Eastmond and colleagures at the University of California, Riverside investigated whether chromosomal changes could be used as biomarkers of benzene exposure in mice and humans. The first part of the study involved detecting chromosomal alterations in cells using a modification of a molecular cytogenetic technique known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Eastmond and colleagues evaluated the frequency of such chromosomal aberrations in the erythrocytes (red blood cells) from the bone marrow of mice exposed to various doses of benzene and for different exposure durations.

Airborne Particles and Health: HEI Epidemiologic Evidence

Health Effects Institute
June 2001
Perspectives 1

Perspectives 1 is the first of a series produced by the HEI Health Review Committee to integrate findings across several HEI studies or entire research programs. The intent is to describe and interpret results bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience in terested in environmental health.

Metabolism of Ether Oxygenates Added to Gasoline

Jun-Yan Hong
et al.
Wolfgang Dekant
et al.
Janet Benson
et al.
May 2001
Research Report 102

The three research projects contained in this report were initiated to increase our knowledge of the metabolism of ether oxygenates in humans and other species. Adding oxygenates, such as MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), to gasoline promotes more efficient combustion and reduces emission of carbon monoxide, ozone-forming hydrocarbons, and some air toxics, by increasing the oxygen content of the fuel. On the other hand, some oxygenates may increase emission of toxic compounds such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde, and increased use of MTBE in fuel in the early 1990s led to complaints of unpleasant odor, headaches, and burning of eyes and throat. The studies were conducted by Dr Jun-Yan Hong (the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey – Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Dr Wolfgang Dekant (University of Würzburg), and Dr Janet Benson (Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute).