Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 141 - 150 of 317. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part IV: Hierarchical Bivariate Time-Series Models—A Combined Analysis of PM10 Effects on Hospitalization and Mortality

Francesca Dominici
Antonella Zanobetti
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Jonathan M Samet
September 2005
Research Report 094-IV

In Part IV of the Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), Dr Francesca Dominici and colleagues at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health addressed an important question resulting from the combined analysis of air pollution effects on mortality and on hospital admissions. Is the underlying true effect per unit PM10 on mortality (the mortality slope) of the same magnitude as the effect per unit PM10 on hospitalizations (the hospitalization slope) in a given city?

Particle Size and Composition Related to Adverse Health Effects in Aged, Sensitive Rats

Fletcher F Hahn
Edward Barr
Margaret G Ménache
JeanClare Seagrave
September 2005
Research Report 129

Dr. Hahn and colleagues systematically examined lung inflammation in young adult and old rats after inhalation of fine particles (< 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and ultrafine particles (< 0.1 µm in aerodynamic diameter) of different composition: relatively inert carbon and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), which contains the transition metal vanadium, known to cause toxic effects upon inhalation in humans in occupational settings. In addition, they examined the effect of a short-term increase (spike) in particle exposure concentration on inflammatory response.

Particulate Air Pollution and Nonfatal Cardiac Events

Annette Peters
et al.
Douglas W. Dockery
et al.
June 2005
Research Report 124

This report contains two studies, by Drs. Annette Peters and Douglas Dockery. Dr. Peters and her colleagues evaluated the association between nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and exposure to particulate matter just prior to the event. She asked 691 patients in hospitals in Augsburg, Germany who survived an MI to provide hourly details about their activities 4 days before MI onset. The investigators used a case-crossover analysis to determine whether exposure to pollutants was associated with onset of MI. Dr. Dockery and colleagues assessed the correlation between short-term increases in ambient concentrations of particulate matter and the risk of possibly life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The investigators studied 195 patients from Boston, MA who had either single or dual-chamber ICD's and used logistic regression models to determine whether exposure to air pollutants was associated with arrhythmias.

Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Exposures to PM2.5 and Its Components for Groups of Cardiovascular Patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki

Bert Brunekreef
Nicole AH Janssen
Jeroen J de Hartog
Marieke Oldenwening
Kees Meliefste
Gerard Hoek
Timo Lanki
Kirsi L Timonen
Marko Vallius
Juha Pekkanen
Rene Van Grieken
January 2005
Research Report 127

Dr. Brunekreef and his colleagues assessed the correlation between personal, indoor, and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for elderly people with cardiovascular disease living in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Helsinki, Finland. Measurements were taken between November 1998 and June 1999 using fixed monitoring sites near the subjects' residences and inside their homes using the same type of monitor. Personal exposures were monitored with a different type of sampler that the subjects kept with them at all times.

Neurogenic Responses in Rat Lungs After Nose-Only Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

Mark L Witten
Simon S Wong
Nina N Sun
Ingegerd Keith
Chol-Bum Kweon
David E Foster
James J Schauer
Duane L Sherrill
January 2005
Research Report 128

Dr. Witten and colleagues investigated the inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust exposure on rat airways. The investigators focused on the role of neurogenic inflammation, an inflammatory response defined by the release of neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP), from sensory nerve fibers known as C fibers located within the lung tissue. Neurogenic inflammation has been implicated in responses to inhaled irritants such as ozone and cigarette smoke and has been implied to play a role in asthma.

Effects of Exposure to Ultrafine Carbon Particles in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Asthma

Mark W Frampton
Mark J Utell
Wojciech Zareba
Günter Oberdörster
Christopher Cox
Li-Shan Huang
Paul E Morrow
F Eun-Hyung Lee
David Chalupa
Lauren M Frasier
Donna M Speers
Judith Stewart
December 2004
Research Report 126

Dr. Frampton and his colleagues evaluated the effects of exposing healthy and mildly asthmatic men and women to laboratory-generated ultrafine carbon particles. They hypothesized that ultrafine particle exposure would activate leukocytes and endothelial cells and lead to an inflammatory response in the airway and in the blood; and that it also might affect respiration and cardiac electrophysiologic function. They further hypothesized that effects would be greater in people with asthma than in healthy people.

Time-Series Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality: A Statistical Review

Francesca Dominici
December 2004
Research Report 123

This report describes a study funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award. Dr Francesca Dominici and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University developed more flexible methods and statistical models for the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study database.

Uptake Distribution of Ozone in Human Lungs: Intersubject Variability in Physiologic Response

James S Ultman
Abdellaziz Ben-Jebria
Steven F Arnold
November 2004
Research Report 125

Dr James Ultman and colleagues at Pennsylvania State University recruited 32 men and 28 women to examine differences in ozone uptake in the lung. The subjects (all non smokers) first took a series of single breaths of air–ozone mixtures, which allowed the investigators to examine how ozone was distributed in the airways and where the major fraction of ozone was taken up. In a follow-up test, the subjects pedaled a bicycle ergometer to produce conditions of moderate exercise for one hour while breathing clean air, followed by a third test while breathing ozone at 0.25 ppm).

Evaluation of a Personal and Microenvironmental Aerosol Speciation Sampler (PMASS)

Alison S Geyh
Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
November 2004
Research Report 122

Dr Alison S Geyh and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University evaluated the personal and microenvironmental aerosol speciation sampler (PMASS) prototype developed by Dr. Susanne Hering with HEI funding (HEI Research Report 114). The precision and accuracy of the prototype, which measures PM2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate, was evaluated in two locations with different PM composition. Baltimore, Maryland (outdoors), and Fresno, California (indoors). Geyh and colleagues set a target of 10% precision and 10% accuracy for all species measured.

Field Evaluation of Nanofilm Detectors for Measuring Acidic Particles in Indoor and Outdoor Air

Maire SA Heikkinen
Yair Hazi
Hai Gao
Paul Peters
Morton Lippmann
September 2004
Research Report 121

Dr. Beverly Cohen and her colleagues at New York University School of Medicine tested the performance of iron nanofilms to collect and measure sulfuric acid particles of different sizes under a variety of temperature and humidity conditions. The iron nanofilm detector is a thin iron-coated silicon chip. Particles would react with the iron, creating an elevated site or bump on the film surface, which can be visualized using an atomic force microscope.