Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 151 - 160 of 306. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


Revised Analyses of Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution and Health

Health Effects Institute
May 2003
Special Report

Over the past decade, time-series studies conducted in many cities have contributed information about the association between daily changes in concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) and daily morbidity and mortality. In 2002, however, investigators at Johns Hopkins University and at Health Canada identified issues in the statistical model used in the majority of time-series studies. This HEI Special Report details attempts to address several questions raised by these discoveries.

Improving Estimates of Diesel and Other Emissions for Epidemiologic Studies

Health Effects Institute
April 2003
Communication 10

Communication 10 contains proceedings of a workshop held in Baltimore, MD, December 4–6 2002. The workshop sought to address the search for a "Diesel Signature": Do We Have a Diesel Signature? Where Do We Go From Here? Communication 10 includes a workshop summary and reports from speakers on: Health Studies of Diesel Particulate Matter; Future Trends of Diesel Emissions; Diesel and Gasoline Particle Characteristics; Approaches to Particle Characterization; Diesel Source Signature Studies; Emissions and Air Quality Studies; Data Analysis Approaches.

A Personal Particle Speciation Sampler

Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
February 2003
Research Report 114

Dr. Susanne Hering of Aerosol Dynamics Inc and her colleagues set out to design and validate a personal monitoring sampler for particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) that is suitable for subsequent chemical speciation work. The sampler intended to meet the measurement needs for PM2.5 mass concentration and several of its major constituents including elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates.

Benzene Metabolism in Rodents at Doses Relevant to Human Exposure from Urban Air

Kenneth W Turteltaub
Chitra Mani
February 2003
Research Report 113

Drs Turteltaub and Mani at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigated benzene metabolism in rodents over a large dose range that encompassed concentrations close to those of human ambient exposure. Understanding benzene metabolism at low exposure levels is critical to benzene assessment to determine the shape of the dose-response curve at low concentrations.The investigators administered radioactive benzene to mice and rats and subsequently analyzed bone marrow, liver, urine, and plasma from these animals.

Particle Characteristics Responsible for Effects on Human Lung Epithelial Cells

Ann E Aust
James C Ball
Autumn A Hu
JoAnn S Lighty
Kevin R Smith
Ann M Straccia
John M Veranth
Willie C Young
December 2002
Research Report 110

Dr. Aust and her colleagues at Utah State University and Ford Motor company hypothesized that transition metals (metals that can participate in possibly toxic oxidative reactions) associated with particulate matter are released within lung epithelial cells and catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. The investigators focused their study on coal fly ash that was produced in the laboratory and separated into four size fractions.

Effect of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation Parameters in Rats

Christine Nadziejko
Kaijie Fang
Lung Chi Chen
Beverly Cohen
Margaret Karpatkin
Arthur Nádas
October 2002
Research Report 111

Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine evaluated the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators measured platelet number, blood cells counts, and levels of fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and factor VII of rats that were exposed to concentrated New York City particles and filtered air for 6 hours. Blood samples were obtained before and after exposure using an indwelling catheter.

Ozone-Induced Modulation of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Guinea Pigs

Richard B Schlesinger
Mitchell Cohen
Terry Gordon
Christine Nadziejko
Judith T Zelikoff
Maureen Sisco
Jean F Regal
Margaret G Ménache
June 2002
Research Report 109

Dr. Schlesinger and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine used a well-established animal model of airway hyperresponsiveness (a heightened tendency of the bronchial airways to constrict) and allergic asthma to determine whether ozone can induce airway hyperresponsiveness or exacerbate existing airway hyperresponsiveness. Male and female guinea pigs were exposed to ozone concentrations comparable to levels to which humans are exposed during periods of ozone pollution.

Case-Cohort Study of Styrene Exposure and Ischemic Heart Disease

Genevieve M Matanoski
Xuguang Tao
May 2002
Research Report 108

Drs. Matanoski and Tao at Johns Hopkins University examined the relationship between styrene exposure and heart disease in workers in styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing plants between 1943 and 1982. Workers who had died from ischemic heart disease were compared to a subgroup of all men employed in two styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing plants during that time. Individual exposure histories were determined from job records, or constructed using a statistical method to estimate exposure when records were missing.

Research Directions to Improve Estimates of Human Exposure and Risk from Diesel Exhaust

Health Effects Institute
April 2002
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Epidemiology Working Group. The Diesel Epidemiology Working Group was formed in the fall of 2000 to (1) review reports from 6 diesel feasibility studies funded by HEI to provide information on potential study populations and on exposure assessment methods; and (2) consider the results of the feasibility studies and other ongoing research in order to develop a new research agenda to seek better information for quantitative risk assessment of lung cancer and other chronic diseases that may result from exposure to diesel exhaust. The 6 feasibility studies described in this report were funded by HEI to provide insight about whether a new retrospective or prospective epidemiologic study could provide data to improve estimates of cancer risk from exposure to diesel exhaust, and about whether new methods of exposure analysis would allow us to reevaluate older epidemiologic studies.

Understanding the Health Effects of Components of the Particulate Matter Mix: Progress and Next Steps

Health Effects Institute
April 2002
Perspectives 2

Perspectives 2 is the second of a series produced by the HEI Health Review Committee to integrate findings across several HEI studies or entire research programs. The intent is to describe and interpret results bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience interested in environmental health.