Publications

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Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Parts VIII and IX

Ling-Yi Chang
Kent E Pinkerton
March 1995
Research Report 65-VIII & IX

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. In this report, two of studies and in the NTP/HEI Collaborative Ozone Project, were conducted to determine whether prolonged inhalation of ozone produces lasting effects on lung structure, potentially contributing to or aggravating chronic lung disease. Drs. Chang and Pinkerton and their respective colleagues investigated the effects of this prolonged ozone exposure on respiratory tract structure in healthy male and female F344/N rats. 

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part X: Robust Composite Scores Based on Median Polish Analysis

Paul J Catalano
John Rogus
Louise M Ryan
January 1994
Research Report 65-X

One major component of urban smog is ozone, a highly reactive gas that forms when emissions from mobile and industrial sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight.  One concern is that prolonged ozone exposure could cause noncancerous lung diseases such as fibrosis and emphysema. The NTP's bioassay project presented a unique opportunity for a collaboration between the HEI and the NTP.

Oxidant and Acid Aerosol Exposure in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Asthma

Jane Koenig
Mark J Utell
November 1994
Research Report 70

In two separate studies, Drs. Koenig and Utell examined the effects of exposing healthy subjects and subjects with asthma to combined oxidant and acid pollutants. Each team of investigators conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols and standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig and colleagues exposed 28 adolescents with asthma to varying concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfuric acid. Dr. Utell and colleagues examined the effects of sequential exposures to sulfuric acid and ozone on pulmonary function in 30 subjects with asthma and 30 healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 45. 

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part VII: Effects on the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus

Jack R Harkema
Kevin T Morgan
Elizabeth A Gross
Paul J Catalano
William C Griffith
November 1994
Research Report 65-VII

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The nose is the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens, dusts, and irritant gases; thus, changes induced by ozone in the normal functions of the nose could result in an increased susceptibility to respiratory infections and other diseases. In one of eight studies in the NTP/HEI Collaborative Ozone Project, Drs.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part V: Effects on Pulmonary Function

Jack R Harkema
Joe L Mauderly
November 1994
Research Report 65-V

Ozone is the major pollutant in smog. It is formed by complex photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. Motor vehicle and industrial emissions are prominent sources of these compounds. Peak atmospheric ozone concentrations generally occur during the summer months because the photochemical reactions that produce ozone are enhanced by sunlight and high temperature.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part IV: Effects on Expression of Extracellular Matrix Genes

William C Parks
Jill D Roby
October 1994
Research Report 65-IV

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. Prolonged ozone exposure may injure respiratory tissue, leading to the development or exacerbation of chronic lung diseases such as fibrosis or emphysema. An excess of connective tissue can lead to fibrosis and changes in connective tissue are believed to be an underlying cause of emphysema. Dr.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part I: Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Lung Lesions

Joe L Mauderly
M Burton Snipes
Edward Barr
Steven A Belinsky
James A Bond
Antone L Brooks
I-Yiin Chang
Yung S Cheng
Nancy A Gillett
William C Griffith
Rogene F Henderson
Charles E Mitchell
Kristen J Nikula
October 1994
Research Report 68-I

Dr. Mauderly and coworkers exposed F344/N rats to clean air or to one of two levels (2.5 or 6.5 mg of particles/m3 of diesel exhaust or air) of either emissions from a light-duty diesel engine or carbon black particles. The exposures lasted for 16 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 24 months. The carbon black particles were similar to the soot particles in the diesel engine exhaust; however, they contained markedly lower amounts of adsorbed organic compounds.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part III: Effects on Complex Carbohydrates of Lung Connective Tissue

Bhandaru Radhakrishnamurthy
September 1994
Research Report 65-XIII

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The study of the effects of long-term ozone exposure on lung complex carbohydrates, described in this report, was one of eight laboratory studies supported by the NTP/HEI collaborative agreement. In addition to studying lung and nasal structure and function, investigators studied other constituents of lung connective tissue. Dr.

Noninvasive Determination of Respiratory Ozone Absorption: The Bolus-Response Method

James S Ultman
Abdellaziz Ben-Jebria
Shu-Chieh Hu
August 1994
Research Report 69

Dr. James Ultman and colleagues at Pennsylvania State University used a fast-responding ozone measurement system, which they had developed with previous HEI support, to noninvasively measure the absorption of inhaled ozone in different regions of the respiratory tract of healthy adult men. While the subject was breathing through the measurement apparatus, a narrow 10-mL bolus of ozone was introduced into the inhaled air at a predetermined point.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part II: Mechanical Properties, Responses to Bronchoactive Stimuli, and Eicosanoid Release in Isolated Large and Small Airways

John L Szarek
August 1994
Research Report 65-II

Ozone is a major outdoor air pollutant and short term inhalation can produce temporary chest discomfort, and transient changes in breathing patterns and lung function. Because a large number of people are exposed to levels of ozone sufficient to cause effects on breathing, it is important to understand the short- and long-term consequences of these exposures for human health. Dr.