This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 221 - 230 of 298. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.

Noninvasive Determination of Respiratory Ozone Absorption: The Bolus-Response Method

James S Ultman
Abdellaziz Ben-Jebria
Shu-Chieh Hu
August 1994
Research Report 69

Dr. James Ultman and colleagues at Pennsylvania State University used a fast-responding ozone measurement system, which they had developed with previous HEI support, to noninvasively measure the absorption of inhaled ozone in different regions of the respiratory tract of healthy adult men. While the subject was breathing through the measurement apparatus, a narrow 10-mL bolus of ozone was introduced into the inhaled air at a predetermined point.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part II: Mechanical Properties, Responses to Bronchoactive Stimuli, and Eicosanoid Release in Isolated Large and Small Airways

John L Szarek
August 1994
Research Report 65-II

Ozone is a major outdoor air pollutant and short term inhalation can produce temporary chest discomfort, and transient changes in breathing patterns and lung function. Because a large number of people are exposed to levels of ozone sufficient to cause effects on breathing, it is important to understand the short- and long-term consequences of these exposures for human health. Dr.

Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Illness in Children. Part III: Quality Assurance in an Epidemiologic Study

William E Lambert
Jonathan M Samet
Betty J Skipper
Alice H Cushing
William C Hunt
Stephen A Young
Leroy C McLaren
Margo Schwab
John Spengler
July 1994
Research Report 58-III

This report describes the quality assurance and quality control program developed for the previously reported epidemiologic study of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and respiratory illness in children (Health Effects Institute Research Report 58, Parts I and II). The specific aims of the program were to make certain that data were sufficiently accurate, complete, verifiable, and retrievable.

Development of Methods for Measuring Biological Markers of Formaldehyde Exposure

Timothy R Fennell
June 1994
Research Report 67

Dr. Fennell at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology sought to develop new methods for improving the detection of formaldehyde-DNA adducts in exposed cells and tissues. The investigator treated formaldehyde-DNA adducts with sodium bisulfite, a compound that reacts with these adducts and traps them as stable compounds, and then tested different analytical techniques for separating and detecting the adducts. He exposed pure DNA, cell nuclei, and cells in culture to formaldehyde and treated them with sodium bisulfite under a variety of experimental conditions.

The Effects of Copollutants on the Metabolism and DNA Binding of Carcinogens

Paul C Howard
Frederick A Beland
May 1994
Research Report 66

High doses of inhaled diesel engine exhaust produce lung tumors in laboratory animals and may cause cancer in humans. Nitropyrenes are products of diesel engine exhaust and can be activated by the body\'s metabolism to form highly reactive products that interact with DNA to form DNA adducts. The adducts can interfere with the normal processes of DNA replication and can lead to genetic mutations that may result in carcinogenesis. Dr.

Biomonitoring of Nitropolynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Protein and DNA Adducts

Karam El-Bayoumy
Bruce E Johnson
Ajit K Roy
Pramod Upadhyaya
Syrus J Partian
April 1994
Research Report 64

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-substituted derivatives (nitro-PAHs), products of incomplete combustion, is widespread. This is of concern because individual PAHs and PAH-containing mixtures cause tumors in animals and they are suspected to contribute to human cancer. To asses their carcinogenic potential in humans, biomarkers of PAH exposure that measure the internal dose or the effective dose need to be developed. Dr.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part I: Content and Cross-Linking of Lung Collagen

Jerold A Last
Thomas R Gelzleichter
Jack R Harkema
Susan Hawk
April 1994
Research Report 65-I

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The study of the effects of long-term ozone exposure on lung collagen, described in this report, was one of eight studies in a Collaborative Project supported by the NTP and the HEI. The others included studies of lung biochemistry, structure, and function, and one study of nasal structure and function. Dr.

Environmental Epidemiology Planning Project

Health Effects Institute
March 1994
Communication 3

HEI conducted the Environmental Epidemiology Planning Project in order to identify research needs and opportunities in selected areas of environmental epidemiology. Working groups in each selected area prepared documents composed of individually authored papers. The Planning Project documents were originally published in Environmental Health Perspectives (December 1993, Vol. 102).

Development of Samplers for Measuring Human Exposure to Ozone

Jack D Hackney
Petros Koutrakis
Yukio Yanagisawa
February 1994
Research Report 63

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. Assessing the risk of adverse health effects from such exposures is difficult because only limited data are available on the actual ozone concentrations that people experience. Under the HEI ozone sampler program, three studies were designed to advance the development and testing of personal ozone samplers. The studies were conducted by Dr. Hackney and colleagues at Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center (Part I), Dr. Koutrakis and colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health (Part II), and Dr. Yanagisawa from the Harvard School of Public Health (Part III). 

Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Isolated Heart Muscle Cells

Beatrice A Wittenberg
Jonathan B Wittenberg
December 1993
Research Report 62

Human exposure to carbon monoxide can occur from automobile emissions, industrial processes, sidestream or mainstream cigarette smoke, and poorly ventilated appliances such as space heaters and gas stoves. Most researchers consider the major mechanism for the toxicity of carbon monoxide to be its ability to compete with oxygen for binding to hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen through the bloodstream and releases it to cells and tissues.