Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

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The Potential Health Effects of Oxygenates Added to Gasoline. A Review of the Current Literature

Health Effects Institute
April 1996
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Oxygenates Evaluation Committee. Oxygenated fuel (usually referred to as oxyfuel) was formulated to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and contains at least 2.7% oxygen by adding methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol. Reformulated gasoline was formulated to help reduce ground-level ozone concentrations and contains at least 2% oxygen, has a reduced content of benzene and other aromatic compounds, and produces limited emissions of total air toxics. The introduction of fuels containing oxygenates elicited concerns from workers and the general public in some areas, including reports of unpleasant odors, headaches, or other symptoms attributed to the fuels, and questions about their effects on the cost of gasoline, the performance of engines, and fuel economy. This Special Report summarizes an intensive review of (1) the existing science of the health effects of oxygenates, (2) the risk evaluations done by the EPA in 1993 and 1994, and (3) in a qualitative way, the health effects of exposure to the new additives as they relate to the health effects of other pollutants whose levels in emissions change when fuels containing oxygenates are used.

Theoretical Approaches to Analyzing Complex Mixtures

Health Effects Institute
February 1996
Communication 4

Communication 4 contains four reports on analyzing complex mixtures. Three reports address analytical approaches to indentifying toxic compounds. One describes statistical approaches to analysis of interaction. (1) Immunoaffinity Chromatography in the Analysis of Toxic Effects of Complex Mixtures, William E. Bechtold (2) Stationary-Phase Programming for Liquid Chromatography: A New Concept for Separating Complex Mixtures, John G. Dorsey (3) Supercritical Separation and Molecular Bioassay Technologies Applied to Complex Mixtures, David L. Springer (4) Using the Parallel Coordinate Axis System to Analyze Complex Mixtures: Determining Biological Activity and Interactions Among Components, Chris Gennings.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part II: DNA Damage

Kurt Randerath
Kim L Putnam
Joe L Mauderly
Paige L Williams
Erika Randerath
December 1995
Research Report 68-II

Dr. Randerath's study was part of a large cancer bioassay conducted by Dr. Joe Mauderly and colleagues of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI). The investigators exposed F344/N rats by inhalation to clean (filtered) air or to one of two concentrations of either diesel exhaust or carbon (2.5 or 6.5 mg of particles/m3 of test atmosphere). Both Dr. Randerath and Dr. Mauderly measured DNA adducts in lung tissue samples from rats exposed at ITRI for different periods of time to the test atmospheres. Dr.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part III: Examination of Possible Target Genes

Steven A Belinsky
Charles E Mitchell
Kristen J Nikula
Deborah S Swafford
December 1995
Research Report 68-III

In Part III of this study, Dr. Belinsky and his associates at the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute examined lung tumors from rats that had inhaled high concentrations of diesel engine exhaust or carbon black particles (see Part I by Dr. Joe Mauderly). The investigators applied molecular biology techniques to measure mutations in selected genes in the DNA from the tumors.

DNA Adduct Formation and T-Lymphocyte Mutation Induction in F344 Rats Implanted with Tumorigenic Doses of 1,6-Dinitropyrene

Frederick A Beland
October 1995
Research Report 72

Dr. Beland and his associates at the University of Arkansas School of Medical Sciences developed an assay to measure mutations induced by dinitropyrenes, a class of diesel engine exhaust, in rats. The investigators analyzed the mutations in a selected gene in spleen T lymphocytes from rats treated with 1,6-dinitropyrene under conditions that induced lung tumors at the highest dose tested. They also examined DNA adduct levels in lung and liver tissues and in spleen lymphocytes and white blood cells.

Activation of Eicosanoid Metabolism in Human Airway Epithelial Cells by Products of Ozonolysis in Membrane Fatty Acids

George D Leikauf
Qiyu Zhao
Shaoying Zhou
Jeffrey Santrock
September 1995
Research Report 71

Dr. Leikauf and colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center examined the potential of the secondary products produced from the reaction of ozone with the fluids and the cell membrane of airway epithelial cells to cause biochemical effects. The investigators prepared aldehydes and hydroxyhydroperoxides of different carbon chain lengths. They tested these compounds and hydrogen peroxide in cultures of human airway epithelial cells grown from tissue explants.

Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: The Phase I Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. Phase I.A: Replication and Validation of Selected Studies

Health Effects Institute
August 1995
Special Report

The Phase I.A Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.A, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) reconstructed from original sources the data set for Philadelphia used in earlier studies and confirmed previous numerical results from analyzing these data; (2) developed an analytic approach (including new statistical methods) based on the Philadelphia data set; and (3) applied this approach to data sets for six locations: Philadelphia; Utah Valley; St. Louis, MO; Eastern Tennessee; Birmingham, AL; and Santa Clara County, CA.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part VI: Background and Study Design

Gary A Boorman
Paul J Catalano
Bernard J Jacobson
Debra A Kaden
Paul W Mellick
Kathleen M Nauss
Lousie M Ryan
August 1995
Research Report 65-VI

In 1987, the Health Effects Institute entered into a partnership with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to evaluate the effects of prolonged ozone exposure on F344/N rats. The NTP studies focused on carcinogenicity, while HEI supported eight studies that addressed the biochemical, functional, and structural endpoints and a biostatistical study that developed a sample allocation design and helped to integrate the research findings.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part XI: Integrative Summary

Paul J Catalano
Ling-Yi Chang
Jack R Harkema
Debra A Kaden
Jerold A Last
Paul W Mellick
William C Parks
Kent E Pinkerton
Bhandaru Radhakrishnamurthy
Louise M Ryan
John L Szarek
April 1995
Research Report 65-XI

In 1987, the Health Effects Institute entered into a partnership with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to evaluate the effects of prolonged ozone exposure on F344/N rats. The NTP studies focused on carcinogenicity. HEI funded eight independent research studies, including investigations of lung biochemical constituents, structural and cellular changes, lung function, and nasal structure and function.

Diesel Exhaust: Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects

Health Effects Institute
April 1995
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Working Group. Diesel engine emissions have the potential to cause adverse health effects, including cancer and other pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is difficult to distinguish the potential health risks attributable to exposure to diesel exhaust from those attributable to other air pollutants. For over a decade, HEI has supported a broad-based research program to evaluate the health risks of diesel emissions, including investigations of carcinogenesis, modeling studies, and emissions characterization. The purpose of this Special Report is to examine what is known, not known, and still uncertain about the health risks of exposure to diesel emissions.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Parts VIII and IX

Ling-Yi Chang
Kent E Pinkerton
March 1995
Research Report 65-VIII & IX

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. In this report, two of studies and in the NTP/HEI Collaborative Ozone Project, were conducted to determine whether prolonged inhalation of ozone produces lasting effects on lung structure, potentially contributing to or aggravating chronic lung disease. Drs. Chang and Pinkerton and their respective colleagues investigated the effects of this prolonged ozone exposure on respiratory tract structure in healthy male and female F344/N rats. 

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part X: Robust Composite Scores Based on Median Polish Analysis

Paul J Catalano
John Rogus
Louise M Ryan
January 1994
Research Report 65-X

One major component of urban smog is ozone, a highly reactive gas that forms when emissions from mobile and industrial sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight.  One concern is that prolonged ozone exposure could cause noncancerous lung diseases such as fibrosis and emphysema. The NTP's bioassay project presented a unique opportunity for a collaboration between the HEI and the NTP.

Oxidant and Acid Aerosol Exposure in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Asthma

Jane Koenig
Mark J Utell
November 1994
Research Report 70

In two separate studies, Drs. Koenig and Utell examined the effects of exposing healthy subjects and subjects with asthma to combined oxidant and acid pollutants. Each team of investigators conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols and standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig and colleagues exposed 28 adolescents with asthma to varying concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfuric acid. Dr. Utell and colleagues examined the effects of sequential exposures to sulfuric acid and ozone on pulmonary function in 30 subjects with asthma and 30 healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 45. 

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part VII: Effects on the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus

Jack R Harkema
Kevin T Morgan
Elizabeth A Gross
Paul J Catalano
William C Griffith
November 1994
Research Report 65-VII

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The nose is the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens, dusts, and irritant gases; thus, changes induced by ozone in the normal functions of the nose could result in an increased susceptibility to respiratory infections and other diseases. In one of eight studies in the NTP/HEI Collaborative Ozone Project, Drs.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part V: Effects on Pulmonary Function

Jack R Harkema
Joe L Mauderly
November 1994
Research Report 65-V

Ozone is the major pollutant in smog. It is formed by complex photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. Motor vehicle and industrial emissions are prominent sources of these compounds. Peak atmospheric ozone concentrations generally occur during the summer months because the photochemical reactions that produce ozone are enhanced by sunlight and high temperature.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part I: Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Lung Lesions

Joe L Mauderly
M Burton Snipes
Edward Barr
Steven A Belinsky
James A Bond
Antone L Brooks
I-Yiin Chang
Yung S Cheng
Nancy A Gillett
William C Griffith
Rogene F Henderson
Charles E Mitchell
Kristen J Nikula
October 1994
Research Report 68-I

Dr. Mauderly and coworkers exposed F344/N rats to clean air or to one of two levels (2.5 or 6.5 mg of particles/m3 of diesel exhaust or air) of either emissions from a light-duty diesel engine or carbon black particles. The exposures lasted for 16 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 24 months. The carbon black particles were similar to the soot particles in the diesel engine exhaust; however, they contained markedly lower amounts of adsorbed organic compounds.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part IV: Effects on Expression of Extracellular Matrix Genes

William C Parks
Jill D Roby
October 1994
Research Report 65-IV

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. Prolonged ozone exposure may injure respiratory tissue, leading to the development or exacerbation of chronic lung diseases such as fibrosis or emphysema. An excess of connective tissue can lead to fibrosis and changes in connective tissue are believed to be an underlying cause of emphysema. Dr.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part III: Effects on Complex Carbohydrates of Lung Connective Tissue

Bhandaru Radhakrishnamurthy
September 1994
Research Report 65-XIII

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The study of the effects of long-term ozone exposure on lung complex carbohydrates, described in this report, was one of eight laboratory studies supported by the NTP/HEI collaborative agreement. In addition to studying lung and nasal structure and function, investigators studied other constituents of lung connective tissue. Dr.

Noninvasive Determination of Respiratory Ozone Absorption: The Bolus-Response Method

James S Ultman
Abdellaziz Ben-Jebria
Shu-Chieh Hu
August 1994
Research Report 69

Dr. James Ultman and colleagues at Pennsylvania State University used a fast-responding ozone measurement system, which they had developed with previous HEI support, to noninvasively measure the absorption of inhaled ozone in different regions of the respiratory tract of healthy adult men. While the subject was breathing through the measurement apparatus, a narrow 10-mL bolus of ozone was introduced into the inhaled air at a predetermined point.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part II: Mechanical Properties, Responses to Bronchoactive Stimuli, and Eicosanoid Release in Isolated Large and Small Airways

John L Szarek
August 1994
Research Report 65-II

Ozone is a major outdoor air pollutant and short term inhalation can produce temporary chest discomfort, and transient changes in breathing patterns and lung function. Because a large number of people are exposed to levels of ozone sufficient to cause effects on breathing, it is important to understand the short- and long-term consequences of these exposures for human health. Dr.

Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Illness in Children. Part III: Quality Assurance in an Epidemiologic Study

William E Lambert
Jonathan M Samet
Betty J Skipper
Alice H Cushing
William C Hunt
Stephen A Young
Leroy C McLaren
Margo Schwab
John Spengler
July 1994
Research Report 58-III

This report describes the quality assurance and quality control program developed for the previously reported epidemiologic study of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and respiratory illness in children (Health Effects Institute Research Report 58, Parts I and II). The specific aims of the program were to make certain that data were sufficiently accurate, complete, verifiable, and retrievable.

Development of Methods for Measuring Biological Markers of Formaldehyde Exposure

Timothy R Fennell
June 1994
Research Report 67

Dr. Fennell at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology sought to develop new methods for improving the detection of formaldehyde-DNA adducts in exposed cells and tissues. The investigator treated formaldehyde-DNA adducts with sodium bisulfite, a compound that reacts with these adducts and traps them as stable compounds, and then tested different analytical techniques for separating and detecting the adducts. He exposed pure DNA, cell nuclei, and cells in culture to formaldehyde and treated them with sodium bisulfite under a variety of experimental conditions.

The Effects of Copollutants on the Metabolism and DNA Binding of Carcinogens

Paul C Howard
Frederick A Beland
May 1994
Research Report 66

High doses of inhaled diesel engine exhaust produce lung tumors in laboratory animals and may cause cancer in humans. Nitropyrenes are products of diesel engine exhaust and can be activated by the body\'s metabolism to form highly reactive products that interact with DNA to form DNA adducts. The adducts can interfere with the normal processes of DNA replication and can lead to genetic mutations that may result in carcinogenesis. Dr.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part I: Content and Cross-Linking of Lung Collagen

Jerold A Last
Thomas R Gelzleichter
Jack R Harkema
Susan Hawk
April 1994
Research Report 65-I

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The study of the effects of long-term ozone exposure on lung collagen, described in this report, was one of eight studies in a Collaborative Project supported by the NTP and the HEI. The others included studies of lung biochemistry, structure, and function, and one study of nasal structure and function. Dr.

Biomonitoring of Nitropolynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Protein and DNA Adducts

Karam El-Bayoumy
Bruce E Johnson
Ajit K Roy
Pramod Upadhyaya
Syrus J Partian
April 1994
Research Report 64

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-substituted derivatives (nitro-PAHs), products of incomplete combustion, is widespread. This is of concern because individual PAHs and PAH-containing mixtures cause tumors in animals and they are suspected to contribute to human cancer. To asses their carcinogenic potential in humans, biomarkers of PAH exposure that measure the internal dose or the effective dose need to be developed. Dr.

Environmental Epidemiology Planning Project

Health Effects Institute
March 1994
Communication 3

HEI conducted the Environmental Epidemiology Planning Project in order to identify research needs and opportunities in selected areas of environmental epidemiology. Working groups in each selected area prepared documents composed of individually authored papers. The Planning Project documents were originally published in Environmental Health Perspectives (December 1993, Vol. 102).

Development of Samplers for Measuring Human Exposure to Ozone

Jack D Hackney
Petros Koutrakis
Yukio Yanagisawa
February 1994
Research Report 63

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. Assessing the risk of adverse health effects from such exposures is difficult because only limited data are available on the actual ozone concentrations that people experience. Under the HEI ozone sampler program, three studies were designed to advance the development and testing of personal ozone samplers. The studies were conducted by Dr. Hackney and colleagues at Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center (Part I), Dr. Koutrakis and colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health (Part II), and Dr. Yanagisawa from the Harvard School of Public Health (Part III). 

Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Isolated Heart Muscle Cells

Beatrice A Wittenberg
Jonathan B Wittenberg
December 1993
Research Report 62

Human exposure to carbon monoxide can occur from automobile emissions, industrial processes, sidestream or mainstream cigarette smoke, and poorly ventilated appliances such as space heaters and gas stoves. Most researchers consider the major mechanism for the toxicity of carbon monoxide to be its ability to compete with oxygen for binding to hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen through the bloodstream and releases it to cells and tissues.

Methods Development Toward the Measurement of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon–DNA Adducts by Mass Spectrometry

Roger W Giese
Paul Vouros
October 1993
Research Report 61

Both environmental and genetic factors are believed to contribute to the multistage process that results in carcinogenesis. Therefore, determining the health risks associated with exposure to known and suspected carcinogenic chemicals is essential for informed decision-making by regulatory agencies. Dr. Roger W. Giese and colleagues at Northeastern University developed sensitive and specific techniques for measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts, a class of DNA adducts associated with exposure to constituents of diesel emissions and other combustion products.

Failure of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to Enhance Lung Tumor Development in Hamsters

Hanspeter Witschi
Michael A Breider
Hildegard M Schuller
September 1993
Research Report 60

Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are highly reactive oxidant gases that are derived from the combustion of fossil fuels and the atmospheric transformation of these combustion products. A major unanswered question is whether or not exposure to oxidant air pollutants contributes to lung cancer. Dr. Witschi and colleagues at the University of California at Davis examined whether exposure to ozone or nitrogen dioxide enhances the development of tumors induced by the chemical carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN), particularly neuroendocrine tumors, in the respiratory tract of hamsters.

Characterization of Particle- and Vapor-Phase Organic Fraction Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Particle Trap and Regeneration Controls

Susan T Bagley
Linda D Gratz
David G Leddy
John H Johnson
July 1993
Research Report 56

Devices have been developed to reduce particle emissions from vehicles with diesel engines, such as a trap that filters the particles from the exhaust. Periodically, the trap is cleaned (regenerated) by electric heating, thereby burning the particles before they can clog the trap. There is concern that potentially harmful chemicals associated with the particles may be emitted from the trap during normal use and regeneration. Dr.

Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Illness in Children, Part I: Health Outcomes, and Part II: Assessment of Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide

Jonathan M Samet
William E Lambert
June 1993
Research Report 58-I & II

This publications contains two reports by Drs. Jonathan M. Samet, John D. Spengler, and colleagues, who conducted a prospective investigation of 1,205 healthy infants living in homes with gas or electric stoves in Albuquerque, NM. Nitrogen dioxide exposures were carefully estimated from repeated measurements in multiple locations in the subjects' homes throughout the entire 18-month observation period. Respiratory illnesses were monitored prospectively using a surveillance system based on daily parental diaries of respiratory signs and symptoms. Parental reports of illness episodes were validated in a subset of the population by comparison with clinical diagnoses and microbiological testing. Potential confounding factors that influence respiratory infections were reduced by selecting subjects whose parents did not smoke or intend to use day-care services outside the home.

Research Priorities for Mobile Air Toxics

Health Effects Institute
June 1993
Communication 2

Communication 2 provides information to decision makers on research that is potentially capable of narrowing uncertainties related to the health effects of specific air toxics. This report is based on the Mobile Air Toxics Workshop held in Monterey, CA, December 4–6 1992.

Do Electric or Magnetic Fields Cause Adverse Health Effects?

Health Effects Institute
June 1993
Special Report

HEI's Research Plan to Narrow the Uncertainties. This report of the HEI Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research Planning Committee presents a 5-7 year research program intended to clarify whether or not there are adverse health effects from exposure of the public to EMF from electric power transmission, machinery, or household appliances.

Determination of the Atherogenic Potential of Inhaled Carbon Monoxide

Arthur Penn
May 1993
Research Report 57

Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant. It is found in cigarette smoke and emissions from motor vehicles, industrial processes, and poorly ventilated combustion sources. Dr. Penn and his colleagues at New York University Medical Center sought to determine whether chronic exposure to ambient levels of carbon monoxide is also a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis because this disease is the leading contributor to deaths by heart attack and stroke in the United States.

Noninvasive Methods for Measuring Ventilation in Mobile Subjects

J Dennis McCool
Jonathan M Samet
May 1993
Research Report 59

This document contains two reports by Drs. McCool and Samet and their colleagues who were funded to develop and test methods for measuring ventilation in freely mobile subjects at home or at work. Drs. Dennis McCool and Domyung Paek at the Memorial Hospital in Rhode Island measured ventilation with a body surface displacement (BSD) model. Each subject wore wide elastic bands containing coated wire coils around the chest and abdomen and had special magnets affixed to the breastbone and navel, which yielded data about their breathing patterns, breath frequency, and ventilation. In the second study, Dr. Jonathan Samet and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University wanted to develop methods for estimating ventilation from heart rate for future epidemiologic studies. They used the Heartwatch, a portable, commercial device combining a small transmitter worn on the subject's chest with a wristwatch-style receiver that records heart rate.

Mutations Induced by 1-Nitrosopyrene and Related Compounds During DNA Recombination by These Compounds

Veronica M Maher
Nitai P Bhattacharyya
M Chia-Miao Mah
Janet Boldt
Jia-Ling Yang
J Justin McCormick
March 1993
Research Report 55

Nitropyrenes, which form during diesel fuel combustion, cause mutations and are carcinogenic in some animals. Dr. Veronica Maher and colleagues at Michigan State University studied the effect of nitropyrene-DNA adducts on gene mutation. The investigators exposed a specific gene, in culture, to each of two nitropyrene derivatives. They then (1) compared the number of adducts formed by each derivative, (2) analyzed the chemical structure of the adducts, and (3) determined in which region of the DNA the adducts formed.

Oxidant Injury to the Alveolar Epithelium: Biochemical and Pharmacologic Studies

Bruce A Freeman
Peter C Panus
Sadis Matalon
Barbara J Buckley
R Randall Baker
January 1992
Research Report 54

Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are significant outdoor and indoor air pollutants that can cause lung damage. Both are termed oxidant gases because the oxygen atoms they contain react with a variety of lung components and produce injury. Dr. Bruce Freeman and colleagues at the University of Alabama, Birmingham examined oxidant injury to alveolar epithelial cells and tested whether supplementing the levels of antioxidants would modify the cells' resistance to damage.

Use of Physical Chemistry and in Vivo Exposure to Investigate the Toxicity of Formaldehyde Bound to Carbonaceous Particles in the Murine Lung

George J Jakab
Terence H Risby
David R Hemenway
October 1992
Research Report 53

Dr. George Jakab and associates the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health examined the effects of inhaled formaldehyde, an airway irritant that is part of motor vehicle emissions, on alveolar macrophages. The investigators exposed mice to varying levels of formaldehyde alone or to formaldehyde mixed with carbon black particles. Carbon black particles were chosen because of their similarity to combustion derived particles. Different alveolar macrophage functions were evaluated using two assays.

Carbon Monoxide Exposure of Subjects with Documented Cardiac Arrhythmias

Bernard R Chaitman
Thomas E Dahms
Sheila Byers
Lisa W Carroll
Liwa T Younis
Robert D Wiens
September 1992
Research Report 52

Drs. Chaitman and coworkers at the St. Louis University School of Medicine examined whether there is a link between carbon monoxide exposure and arrhythmias in subjects with coronary artery disease. Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant. It is found in cigarette smoke and emissions from motor vehicles, industrial processes, and poorly ventilated combustion sources. The investigators studied 25 men and 5 women, aged 45 to 77 years, all of whom were nonsmokers with stable coronary artery disease and who had moderate levels of ventricular arrhythmias.

Effects of Formaldehyde on Xenotransplanted Human Respiratory Epithelium

Andres JP Klein-Szanto
Hitoshi Ura
Shigeru Momiki
Daniel Bonfil
Samuel Litwin
July 1992
Research Report 51

Dr. Klein-Szanto and colleagues at the Fox Chase Cancer Center employed a novel exposure system to explore the capacity of formaldehyde to cause cancerous changes in human epithelial cells. Formaldehyde is classified as a toxic air pollutant and is emitted in exhaust of motor vehicles, but whether or not formaldehyde is injurious to human health is controversial. The investigators obtained autopsy samples from human infant airways and from adult nasal tissue.

The Role of Ozone in Tracheal Cell Transformation

David G Thomassen
Jack R Harkema
James D Sun
Nicole D Stephens
William C Griffith
April 1992
Research Report 50

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. When inhaled, ozone can cause cough, shortness of breath, and transient changes in breathing patterns; however the health significance of these effects is unknown. Dr. David Thomassen and coworkers examined the ability of ozone to alter the structure and growth characteristics of epithelial cells from rat tracheas in ways consistent with precancerous changes.

New Methods in Ozone Toxicology: Abstracts of Six Pilot Studies

Health Effects Institute
April 1992
Communication 1

HEI Communications 1 contains abstracts for six feasibility studies that were funded under RFA 89-2: Health Effects of Chronic Ozone Inhalation: Collaborative National Toxicology Program–Health Effects Institute Studies: Pilot Studies.

Mechanisms of Aldehyde-Induced Bronchial Reactivity: Role of Airway Epithelium

George D Leikauf
February 1992
Research Report 49

Dr. George Leikauf and coworkers at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center examined the mechanism by which aldehyde inhalation can alter breathing patterns and damage cells lining the airways. Emissions from motor vehicles using gasoline and diesel fuels add to the outdoor levels of aldehydes, including formaldehyde and acrolein, which are known irritants of the respiratory tract. The investigators prposed to examine whether airway constriction due to exposure to aldehydes is caused by damage to airway cells, by the entry of white blood cells into the lungs, or both.

Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis: A Model to Study Effects of Oxidants

Jerry K Davis
Maureen Davidson
Trenton R Schoeb
December 1991
Research Report 47

Nitrogen dioxide is an ubiquitous air pollutant resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. When inhaled at high levels, it reacts with and damages lung cells, including those cells that fight infection. This damage can affect breathing and may increase the risk of respiratory infections. Dr. J.K. Davis and his colleagues at the University of Alabama, Birmingham examined whether exposure to lower levels of nitrogen dioxide (less than 5 ppm) compromises mouse lung defense.

Role of Ring Oxidation in the Metabolic Activation of 1-Nitropyrene

Frederick A Beland
December 1991
Research Report 46

Nitropyrenes are a class of chemicals found in diesel engine exhaust that can form DNA adducts and are suspected animal carcinogens. Dr. Beland at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences examined the relationship between DNA adducts and cancer in laboratory animals treated with 1-nitropyrene, the major nitropyrene present in diesel engine exhaust. The investigator used state-of-the-art techniques to study DNA adducts formed from 1-nitropyrene under different conditions of exposure, with an emphasis on identifying unique adducts that had not been recognized before.

Effects of Ozone Exposure on Airway Epithelial Permeability and Ion Transport

Philip A Bromberg
Venkatachalam Ranga
M Jackson Stutts
December 1991
Research Report 48

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. When inhaled, ozone can cause cough, shortness of breath, and transient changes in breathing patterns; however the health significance of these effects is unknown. Dr. Philip Bromberg and coworkers at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill examined whether exposure to ozone alters properties of the airway epithelium.

The Effects of Exercise on Dose and Dose Distribution of Inhaled Automotive Pollutants

Michael T Kleinman
William J Mautz
October 1991
Research Report 45

The human health effects that result from breathing air pollutants depend on the amount of pollutant inhaled from the air (exposure dose) and the amount of inhaled material that stays in the respiratory tract (retained dose). Because the retained dose of a pollutant may damage the respiratory tract and cause disease, it is a key factor for determining appropriate government regulations for air pollutants. Drs.

Leukocyte-Mediated Epithelial Injury in Ozone-Exposed Rat Lung

Kenneth Donaldson
Geraldine M Brown
David M Brown
Joan Slight
William M Maclaren
John MG Davis
October 1991
Research Report 44

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. When inhaled, ozone can cause cough, shortness of breath, and transient changes in breathing patterns; however the health significance of these effects is unknown. Drs. Kenneth Donaldson and coworkers at the Institute of Occupational Medicine examined whether exposure to ozone activates white blood cells to release substances that can damage lung tissue.

Effects of Methanol Vapor on Human Neurobehavioral Measures

Mary R Cook
Fred J Bergman
Harvey D Cohen
Mary M Gerkovich
Charles Graham
Roger K Harris
Linda G Siemann
August 1991
Research Report 42

In this pilot study, Dr. Mary Cook and colleagues at the Midwest Research Institute explored how exposure to methanol vapor might affect the human nervous system. Methanol could be used as an alternative fuel, but it may lead to increased levels of methanol and formaldehyde in the atmosphere. The investigators exposed 12 young male volunteers to either filtered air or methanol vapor and assessed their response using 20 commonly used tests of sensory, behavioral, and reasoning performance before, during, and after each exposure.