Diesel Exhaust

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Research Report 32
Richard C Moon
Kandala VN Rao
Carol J Detrisac
April 1990

This report describes a study by Dr. Moon and colleagues to investigate the carcinogenic potential of 1-nitropyrene, a mutagenic constituent of diesel exhaust particles, using a hamster respiratory-carcinogenesis model. Male hamsters were exposed to 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene via intratracheal administration either once or twice a week for 92 weeks. In order to study activity as a cocarcinogen, 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene was administered in combination with 0.25 mg of the known environmental carcinogen benzo[α]pyrene once per week for 92 weeks.

Research Report 31
Frederick A Beland
November 1989

This report describes a study by Dr. Beland to investigate the extents to which 1-nitropyrene and 1,6-dinitropyrene, two PAHs found in diesel exhaust, bind DNA in order to better understand the higher relative mutagenicity of 1,6-Dinitropyrene. DNA binding was determined in rats by assay of tissue isolated from a variety of organs. A subset of rats was pretreated with 1-nitropyrene to determine any effect on induction of nitroreductases and subsequent DNA binding by both nitropyrenes.

Research Report 26
Uwe Heinrich
Ulrich Mohr
Rainer Fuhst
Carsten Brockmeyer
May 1989

This report describes a study by Dr. Heinrich and colleagues to investigate the effects of exposure to NO2 and SO2 or diesel engine exhaust on tumor formation in hamsters. Hamsters were exposed for 6, 10.5, 15, or 18 months to whole diesel exhaust, diesel exhaust without particles, or a mixture of NO2 and SO2. Additional groups of animals exposed to each test atmosphere were also injected with 3 or 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine/kg body weight to evaluate any enhancing effect of diethylnitrosamine on exposure-related changes.

Special Report
Health Effects Institute
September 1988

The use of ceramic particulate traps, in conjunction with manganese fuel additives, has been viewed as a way to reduce emissions of particulate matter from diesel-fueled vehicles. This Special Report focuses on the potential health effects from increased public exposure to manganese emissions from such use.

Research Report 19
Ronald K Wolff
Edward Barr
James A Bond
Arthur F Eidson
William C Griffith
Fletcher F Hahn
Jack R Harkema
Rogene F Henderson
Charles E Mitchell
Simon J Rothenberg
George M Shopp
James D Sun
August 1988

This report assessed in rats the carcinogenicity of inhaled 1-nitropyrene, a compound frequently adsorbed to diesel particulate matter, and whether this effect is modified when 1-nitropyrene is associated with particles or irritant gases. Dr. Wolff and colleagues exposed rats to atmospheres containing 14C radiolabeled 1-nitropyrene alone or in combination with gallium oxide, sulfur dioxide, or both. After exposure, tissue samples were analyzed for radiolabel content to determine the tissue distribution of 1-nitropyrene and its metabolites.

Research Report 17
Veronica M Maher
Joe Dale Patton
J Justin McCormick
March 1988

This report describes a study by Dr. Maher and colleagues to investigate the biological effects of nitropyrene compounds, found in diesel emission particulate, on diploid human fibroblasts in culture in order to better evaluate potential health effects. Diploid human fibroblasts from normal individuals and individuals with a genetic predisposition to cancer were studied and compared through a series of experiments.

Research Report 16
Charles M King
February 1988

This report describes a study by Dr. King to investigate in rats the carcinogenetic properties of nitropyrene and related compounds and how these compounds are metabolically activated in target tissues. Nitropyrenes and related nitroaromatics are of interest because of their ubiquity in diesel emissions and reported carcinogenicity.

Research Report 10
CP Yu
GB Xu
July 1987

Dr. Yu's project addressed several important issues regarding improved quantification of dose from known concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter. By focusing first on a specific category of automotive-derived particles, diesel exhaust particulate, Dr. Yu was able to characterize those aerosol properties (such as the mass medican aerodynamic diameter and size distribution) that influence regional deposition. After formulating a mathematical deposition model, Dr.

Research Report 8
Joe L Mauderly
David E Bice
Robert L Carpenter
Nancy A Gillett
Rogene F Henderson
John A Pickrell
Ronald K Wolff
May 1987

Previous research has reported that the lung development of animals exposed to oxidant gases early in life might be impaired, or that developing lungs might be more susceptible than adult lungs to inhaled toxicants. Dr. Mauderly and colleagues at the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute examined the age-related differences in the physiological responses of rats to inhaled automotive emissions. The younger group was exposed during gestation and through the age of six months, while the older group was exposed between the age of six and twelve months.

Research Report 7
John D Groopman
April 1987

Research Report 7 describes a study that attempted to produce monoclonal antibodies to DNA adducts of nitropyrene that could be used to study the mechanism of nitropyrene-induced carcinogenesis or develop analytical techniques for monitoring exposed populations. Dr. Groopman immunized mice against nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons conjugated with a carrier protein to study the progression of immune response. Dr. Groopman injected four antigens into groups of BALB/c, AJ, and NZB mice. Two of the antigens failed to produce any immune response.