Fuels & Fuel Additives

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Fall 2017 Update now available

October 17, 2017

In the Fall 2017 HEI Update, read about the new ways HEI is making study data accessible; a literature review that HEI will soon initiate on the effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution; two new members of the HEI Review Committee; and a newly published summary of an HEI expert workshop on the effects of fuel composition on particulate matter emissions.

Newsletter
Health Effects Institute
October 2017

In this issue of HEI Update, read about the new ways HEI is making study data accessible; a literature review that HEI will soon initiate on the effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution; two new members of the HEI Review Committee; and a newly published summary of an HEI expert workshop on the effects of fuel composition on particulate matter emissions.

Workshop summary: Effects of fuel composition on particulate emissions

September 12, 2017

HEI is pleased to announce the publication of the Executive Summary of proceedings from an HEI workshop that focused on the effects of fuel composition on particulate matter (PM) emissions. Approximately 45 researchers and government and industry representatives attended the workshop, which was held in Chicago in December 2016.

Communication 16
Health Effects Institute
February 2011

This report reviews new vehicle fuels and technologies that are likely to be commercially available within the next 10 years in the United States and other industrialized countries at a level that could result in significant population exposure. It highlights expected changes in emissions and other effects from the use of each technology and fuel, along with any life-cycle and regulatory issues.

Research Report 119
Robert A Yokel
Janelle S Crossgrove
January 2004

Drs. Yokel and Crossgrove at the University of Kentucky Medical Center studied the mechanisms by which manganese enters and leaves the brain across the blood–brain barrier and, in particular, whether transporter molecules are involved. The investigators used in vivo brain perfusion in rats as well as in vitro tests in several cell lines to assess specific characteristics of manganese transport, such as pH and energy dependence. Manganese transport rates were compared with those of sucrose and dextran, which do not easily cross the blood–brain barrier.

Communication 9
Health Effects Institute
August 2001

The fuel efficiency and durability of diesel technology are particularly desirable in the transportation and construction industries. Concerns about the health effects of diesel particulate emissions have led to progressively stricter emission standards, which can be met only through new technologic advances and fuel modifications. The cerium-based fuel additive Eolys, used in conjunction with a particulate filter, is one of the approaches being considered. However, this additive will result in emissions of cerium compounds and an increase in cerium in the ambient air and soil.

Research Report 102
Jun-Yan Hong
et al.
Wolfgang Dekant
et al.
Janet Benson
et al.
May 2001

The three research projects contained in this report were initiated to increase our knowledge of the metabolism of ether oxygenates in humans and other species. Adding oxygenates, such as MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), to gasoline promotes more efficient combustion and reduces emission of carbon monoxide, ozone-forming hydrocarbons, and some air toxics, by increasing the oxygen content of the fuel. On the other hand, some oxygenates may increase emission of toxic compounds such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde, and increased use of MTBE in fuel in the early 1990s led to complaints of unpleasant odor, headaches, and burning of eyes and throat. The studies were conducted by Dr Jun-Yan Hong (the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey – Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Dr Wolfgang Dekant (University of Würzburg), and Dr Janet Benson (Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute).

Research Report 89
Thomas Burbacher
October 1999

In an effort to improve air quality and decrease dependence on petroleum, alternative fuels such as methanol have been considered to substitute for gasoline or diesel fuel. Methanol is also a candidate to provide the hydrogen for fuel cells. Before people are exposed to increased concentrations of methanol, the potential health effects of such exposures require study. Dr. Burbacher and colleagues of the University of Washington studied the effects of long-term exposure to methanol vapors on metabolism and reproduction in adult female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and developmental effects in their offspring, who were exposed prenatally to methanol. 

Research Report 77
Michele A Medinsky
David C Dorman
James A Bond
Owen R Moss
Derek B Janszen
Jeffrey I Everitt
June 1997

Dr. Medinsky and colleagues of the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology sought to determine how formate, a metabolite produced when methanol is broken down by the body, is formed and removed in monkeys after they have been exposed to methanol vapors. The investigators exposed female cynomolgus monkeys to environmentally relevant concentrations (10, 45, or 200 parts per million) of methanol vapors and to one high dose (900 ppm) for two hours.

Research Report 74
Gary M Pollack
Kim LR Brouwer
June 1996

Drs. Pollack and Brouwer at the University of North Carolina determined the relationship between methanol exposure and its uptake into and elimination from the blood of nonpregnant and pregnant rodents. The investigators exposed rats and mice at several different stages of gestation to methanol intravenously or orally (doses ranged from 100 mg/kg of body weight to 2,500 mg/kg) or by inhalation (1,000 to 20,000 ppm for 8 hours). They measured blood, urine, and amniotic fluid concentrations of methanol and used the data to develop a model of methanol distribution in rodents.