Publications

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Update Winter 2012

Health Effects Institute
January 2012
Newsletter

Contents: Effects of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Persons with Asthma and Allergy; Workshop Brings Experts Together: Atmospheric Chemists and Health Effects Scientists Meet at HEI to Discuss Common Goals; Symposium Sheds Light on Air Toxics Hot Spots; Wood Stove Changeout Program Brings Some Improvements in Health, Air Quality; Three New HEI Studies Launched: Ozone Exposure and Inflammatory Cells / PM Exposure and Heart Rhythm / Impact of Exposure in Early Life; ACES Reaches Important Milestones; New Investigator Awards Announced; Eaton Elected to Institute of Medicine

Pulmonary Particulate Matter and Systemic Microvascular Dysfunction

Timothy R Nurkiewicz
Dale W Porter
Ann F Hubbs
Samuel Stone
Amy M Moseley
Jared L Cumpston
Adam G Goodwill
Stephanie J Frisbee
Peter L Perrotta
Robert W Brock
Jefferson C Frisbee
Matthew A Boegehold
David G Frazer
Bean T Chen
Vincent Castranova
December 2011
Research Report 164

This report describes a study that evaluated whether exposure to fine or nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles may affect cardiovascular endpoints, in particular endothelium-dependent vascular dilation. Dr. Nurkiewicz and colleagues exposed rats via inhalation to 0.5 to 20 mg/m3 TiO2 for up to 12 hours and evaluated them for vascular dilation and for markers of oxidative stress, coagulation, and inflammation. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.   

Assessing the Impact of a Wood Stove Replacement Program on Air Quality and Children’s Health

Curtis W Noonan
Tony J Ward
William Navidi
Lianne Sheppard
Megan Bergauff
Chris Palmer
December 2011
Research Report 162
This report describes a study evaluating a community-wide program to improve air quality in a rural mountain community (Libby, Montana) by replacing older, more polluting wood stoves with new, less polluting stoves. Over the course of 4 winters, Dr. Noonan and colleagues measured PM2.5 and markers for wood smoke outdoors, in schools, and in about 20 homes before and after stove changeout. In parallel, they tracked children's respiratory symptoms (based on parental surveys) and school absences.

The London Low Emission Zone Baseline Study

Frank Kelly
Ben Armstrong
Richard Atkinson
H Ross Anderson
Benjamin Barratt
Sean Beevers
Derek Cook
David Green
Dick Derwent
Ian Mudway
Paul Wilkinson
November 2011
Research Report 163

This report describes a study evaluating the feasibility of studying potential changes in air quality and health associated with the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ), which went into effect in 2008 and restricts entry of older, more polluting vehicles into Greater London. Based on their earlier study of London's Congestion Charging Scheme, Dr. Kelly and colleagues conducted emissions and exposure modeling to estimate the projected effects of LEZ implementation. They also assessed the feasibility of using medical records from private practices to evaluate the relationships between exposure to traffic and indicators of respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

Personal and Ambient Exposures to Air Toxics in Camden, New Jersey

Paul J Lioy
Zhihua (Tina) Fan
Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Panos Georgopoulos
Sheng-Wei Wang
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Xiangmei Wu
Xianlei Zhu
Jason Herrington
Xiaogang Tang
Qingyu Meng
Kyung Hwa Jung
Jaymin Kwon
Marta Hernandez
et al.
August 2011
Research Report 160

This report describes a study that tested whether an air toxics "hot spot" existed in Camden, NJ. Dr. Lioy and colleagues evaluated ambient and personal exposures of nonsmoking residents to PM2.5, VOCs, aldehydes, and PAHs in two neighborhoods in Camden, NJ, one of which was hypothesized to be a regional air toxics "hot spot." The investigators compared concentrations of air pollutants in the two neighborhoods with each other and then with concentrations at other locations in the United States. They also assessed the effects of seasonality, contributions from mobile sources, and spatial variability.

Air Toxics Exposure from Vehicle Emissions at a U.S. Border Crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study

John Spengler
Jamson Lwebuga-Mukasa
Jose Vallarino
Steve Melly
Steve Chillrud
Joel Baker
Taeko Minegishi
July 2011
Research Report 158

This report describes a study that tested whether emissions from traffic caused an air toxics "hot spot" in a neighborhood in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Spengler and colleagues hypothesized that vehicle-related emissions from heavy traffic at the Peace Bridge in Buffalo, one of the nation's busiest border crossings and a potential air pollution hot spot, would result in elevated downwind levels of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other traffic-related pollutants. The investigators measured levels of a large number of MSATs as well as six criteria pollutants using both fixed-site and mobile monitoring in order to examine the relation between traffic at the bridge and the spatial distribution of ambient pollutant concentrations at the bridge and in an adjacent neighborhood.

Role of Neprilysin in Airway Inflammation Induced by Diesel Exhaust Emissions

Simon S Wong
Nina N Sun
Cynthia D Fastje
Mark L Witten
R Clark Lantz
Bao Lu
Duane L Sherrill
Craig J Gerard
Jefferey L Burgess
June 2011
Research Report 159

This report evaluates airway inflammatory responses and expression of the enzyme neprilysin in response to diesel exhaust particle exposure. Dr. Wong and colleagues hypothesized that components of diesel exhaust decrease neprilysin levels in airways, leading to airway function disorders and heightened responses to diesel exhaust. They exposed normal mice, mice genetically deficient in neprilysin, human subjects, and human airway epithelial cells to diesel exhaust particles and measured airway inflammation, neprilysin expression, and any unique responses in neprilysin-deficient mice.

The Impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on Air Quality in London

Frank Kelly
H Ross Anderson
Ben Armstrong
Richard Atkinson
Benjamin Barratt
Sean Beevers
Dick Derwent
David Green
Ian Mudway
Paul Wilkinson
April 2011
Research Report 155

This report describes a study that was funded under HEI's research program aimed at measuring the possible health impacts associated with actions taken to improve air quality (health outcomes research). Dr. Kelly and colleagues used a multifaceted approach to exploring the impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on air quality, which involved a variety of emissions and exposure modeling techniques, analysis of air monitoring data, and a newly developed assay for the oxidative potential of particulate matter collected on filters at urban backgrounds and roadside monitors.

Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): Coordinated Studies of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Two Indian Cities

Kalpana Balakrishnan
et al.
Uma Rajarathnam
et al.
March 2011
Research Report 157

This report contains studies in Chennai and Delhi led by Dr. Kalpana Balakrishnan and Dr. Uma Rajarathnam, respectively. These time-series studies of air pollution and mortality in India were funded under HEI's PAPA Program to provide information to inform regulatory and other decisions that would be relevant to local populations, with the added goal of supporting scientific capacity building in the region.

The Future of Vehicle Fuels and Technologies: Anticipating Health Benefits and Challenges

Health Effects Institute
February 2011
Communication 16

This report reviews new vehicle fuels and technologies that are likely to be commercially available within the next 10 years in the United States and other industrialized countries at a level that could result in significant population exposure. It highlights expected changes in emissions and other effects from the use of each technology and fuel, along with any life-cycle and regulatory issues.

Concentrations of Air Toxics in Motor Vehicle-Dominated Environments

Eric M Fujita
David E Campbell
Barbara Zielinska
William P Arnott
Judith C Chow
February 2011
Research Report 156

This report describes research funded under HEI's Air Toxics Hot Spot program. Dr. Eric Fujita and colleagues characterized concentrations of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other pollutants in potential Los Angeles County pollution hot spots, including on urban highways with a varying mix of gasoline- and diesel-powered traffic and sites at various distances from the highways and close to other roads.

Improved Source Apportionment and Speciation of Low-Volume Particulate Matter Samples

James J Schauer
Brian J Majestic
Rebecca J Sheesley
Martin M Shafer
Jeffrey T DeMinter
Mark Mieritz
December 2010
Research Report 153

This report investigates methods with the high sensitivity and low limits of detection needed to analyze a wide range of chemical species in particulate matter collected with personal samplers. Dr. Schauer and colleagues developed sensitive methods to detect trace metals, nonpolar organic compounds, and polar organic compounds in personal samples collected in exposure studies. Methods used in this study are of interest to researchers seeking to gain greater insight into the relationships between the components of inhalable particulates and their health effects.

Evaluating Heterogeneity in Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Using Land-Use Regression and Constrained Factor Analysis

Jonathan I Levy
Jane E Clougherty
Lisa K Baxter
E Andres Houseman
Christopher J Paciorek
December 2010
Research Report 152

This report explores how land-use regression and source-apportionment techniques can be used to characterize individual-level exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollution sources. Dr. Levy and colleagues utilized health and air monitoring data from an ongoing prospective cohort study on childhood asthma in Boston, Massachusetts to model variability in outdoor and indoor residential air pollution, identify potential sources, and evaluate the effectiveness of various indoor exposure surrogates for predicting childhood asthma development.

Outdoor Air Pollution and Health in the Developing Countries of Asia: A Comprehensive Review

Health Effects Institute
November 2010
Special Report 18

This comprehensive literature review to come out of HEI's Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program builds on an initial assessment conducted in 2004 and describes the current scope of the Asian literature on the health effects of outdoor air pollution, enumerating and classifying more than 400 studies. In addition, the report includes a systematic and quantitative assessment of 82 time-series studies of daily mortality and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory disease.

Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): Coordinated Studies of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Four Cities

Haidong Kan
et al.
Zhengmin Qian
et al.
Nuntavarn Vichit-Vadakan
et al.
Chit-Ming Wong
et al.
November 2010
Research Report 154

This report describes the first set of coordinated time-series studies ever undertaken in Asian cities: four time-series studies of the health effects of air pollution in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. These studies were intended to help bridge the gaps between studies conducted in different locations around the globe.

Pulmonary Effects of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust in Young and Old Mice: A Pilot Project

Debra L Laskin
Gediminas Mainelis
Barbara J Turpin
Kinal J Patel
Vasanthi R Sunil
September 2010
Research Report 151

This report explores the possible physiological basis for epidemiologic results suggesting that people over the age of 55 are more sensitive than younger people to the effects of exposure to particulate matter. Dr. Debra Laskin and colleagues hypothesized that this sensitivity resulted from the lung cells of the elderly producing less of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (a cell protein involved in systemic inflammation), as compared with the lung cells of the young after exposure to air pollution.

Proceedings of an HEI Workshop on Further Research to Assess the Health Impacts of Actions Taken to Improve Air Quality

Health Effects Institute
August 2010
Communication 15

Communication 15, Proceedings of an HEI Workshop on Further Research to Assess the Health Impacts of Actions Taken to Improve Air Quality, summarizes the findings of a workshop held in December 2009 that reviewed the current state of research to evaluate the impact of air quality interventions (also known as accountability or air quality outcomes research).

Mutagenicity of Stereochemical Configurations of 1,3-Butadiene Epoxy Metabolites in Human Cells

Ryan Q Meng
Linda C Hackfeld
Richard P Hodge
Lynne A Wisse
Diana L Redetzke
Vernon E Walker
June 2010
Research Report 150

This report describes a study by Dr. Ryan Meng and colleagues to determine the role of stereochemistry in the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of three major butadiene metabolites. This study is a part of HEI's program of research in air toxics; one important aim of that program has been to fill key gaps in risk assessment for some of the most important chemicals. Butadiene is present in motor vehicle exhaust and other emissions and is listed by the U.S.

Development and Application of a Sensitive Method to Determine Concentrations of Acrolein and Other Carbonyls in Ambient Air

Thomas M Cahill
M Judith Charles
Vincent Y Seaman
May 2010
Research Report 149

This report describes a study by Dr. Thomas Cahill and colleagues to create and evaluate a new method to measure acrolein and other volatile carbonyls present at low concentrations in ambient air. Acrolein is an important aldehyde that is very difficult to measure accurately, so developing better methods for measuring levels and exposure is critical to better risk assessment for the chemical. The investigators developed a sampler that traps acrolein using sodium bisulfite in an aqueous medium.

Atmospheric Transformation of Diesel Emissions

Barbara Zielinska
Shar Samy
Jacob D McDonald
JeanClare Seagrave
April 2010
Research Report 147

This report describes a study by Dr. Barbara Zielinska and colleagues to investigate the changes that fresh diesel emissions undergo when they are mixed with ambient air, due to reactions with sunlight and other pollutants. The investigators also evaluated how those changes may affect the toxic properties of diesel emissions. The study used a relatively new (2003 model) light duty diesel engine (although not one with a diesel filter) and provides insight into the complexity of diesel exhaust composition in the real world.

Impact of Improved Air Quality During the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on Multiple Cardiovascular and Respiratory Outcomes

Jennifer L Peel
Mitchel Klein
W Dana Flanders
James A Mulholland
Paige E Tolbert
April 2010
Research Report 148

This report is the latest in HEI's program of studies to assess the health impacts of air quality actions. Research Report 148 describes a study to evaluate the effect of a short-term, temporary intervention to reduce traffic congestion during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia. A previous study had shown a decrease in acute care visits for pediatric asthma and a concomitant decrease in concentrations of ozone, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide.

Traffic-Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects

Health Effects Institute
January 2010
Special Report 17

A Special Report of the Institute's Panel on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution. This report is the most comprehensive and systematic review to date of the scientific literature on emissions, exposure, and health effects from traffic-related air pollution. It includes conclusions about the populations exposed around major roads, the associations between exposure to air pollution from traffic and human health, and important remaining data gaps. Compared with the initial pre-print version released in May 2009, this final version has undergone data verification and editorial changes; however, the overall conclusions did not change.

The Role of T Cells in the Regulation of Acrolein-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Epithelial-Cell Pathology

Michael T Borchers
Scott C Wesselkamper
Hitesh Deshmukh
Erin Beckman
Mario Medvedovic
Maureen Sartor
George D Leikauf
December 2009
Research Report 146

This report describes a study to investigate the role of two subpopulations of T cells in the airway response to inhaled acrolein, a toxic pollutant in ambient air, which US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment has identified as having broad effects. Dr. Michael Borchers and colleagues measured inflammation and injury in response to acrolein in the lungs of mice that are genetically deficient in the specific T-cell subpopulations. He also measured changes in gene expression in the T-cell subpopulations after acrolein exposure. This study was funded under the Walter A.

Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles and Diesel Engine Exhaust on Allergic Airway Disease in Brown Norway Rats

Jack R Harkema
James G Wagner
Norbert E Kaminski
Masako Morishita
Gerald J Keeler
Jacob D McDonald
Edward G Barrett
November 2009
Research Report 145

This report describes a study to investigate the suggested association between exposure to traffic-derived pollution and increases in symptoms of airway diseases, including exacerbation of asthma. Dr. Jack Harkema and colleagues assessed the effects of two pollutant mixtures, concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and diesel exhaust, on airway inflammatory and allergic responses in a rodent model of asthma. The study was one part of an HEI 3-study program of animal and human research on these important questions.

Air Pollution and Health: A European and North American Approach

Klea Katsouyanni
Jonathan M Samet
H Ross Anderson
Richard Atkinson
Alain Le Tertre
Sylvia Medina
Evangelia Samoli
Giota Touloumi
Richard T Burnett
Daniel Krewski
Timothy Ramsay
Francesca Dominici
Roger D Peng
Joel Schwartz
Antonella Zanobetti
October 2009
Research Report 142

This report describes a unique collaboration among investigators from Europe, the United States, and Canada using existing data from three geographic areas and supported by HEI in collaboration with the European Commission. APHENA offered a large and diverse data set with which to address methodological as well as scientific issues about the relationships between PM10, ozone, and mortality and morbidity that were the subject of lively debates at the time the project was launched.