Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 76 - 100 of 309. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs

Thomas J Smith
Mary E Davis
Jaime E Hart
Andrew Blicharz
Francine Laden
Eric Garshick
December 2012
Research Report 172

This report describes a study that measured concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in locations with potentially high levels of air pollution that could make them "hot spots" for human exposure. Dr. Thomas Smith of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues measured pollutant concentrations at upwind and downwind locations at the perimeter of the terminals, as well as inside truck cabs, at 15 truck terminals.

Accountability Analysis of Title IV Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

Richard D Morgenstern
Winston Harrington
Jhih-Shyang Shih
Michelle L Bell
November 2012
Research Report 168

This report describes a study that analyzed the relationships between reductions in pollutants from power plants and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the eastern United States between 1999 and 2005. Dr. Richard D. Morgenstern of Resources for the Future and colleagues used a novel data-driven source-receptor model to explore the statistical relationships between source emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides and monitored concentrations of PM2.5. They performed various external comparisons of their models, and compared the reductions to an estimated counterfactual scenario in which no mandated reductions in SO2 occurred.

Update Fall 2012

Health Effects Institute
November 2012
Newsletter

This update describes a new Diesel Epidemiology Project; a call for Research Proposals: Improving Traffic Exposure Analysis for Health Studies; the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study nearing completion; a new member of the Research Committee; a visit from Japanese Auto Officials; and two new Research Reports on Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs and on the Impact of 1990 Hong Kong Limits on Sulfur Content in Fuel. 

Multicity Study of Air Pollution and Mortality in Latin America (The ESCALA Study)

Isabelle Romieu
Nelson Gouveia
Luis A. Cifuentes
and teams of investigators in Brazil, Chile and Mexico
October 2012
Research Report 171

This report describes the first-ever multicity study to estimate the effect of short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10) and to ozone on mortality in nine Latin American cities. Led by Dr. Isabelle Romieu in Mexico, in collaboration with Dr. Nelson Gouveia in Brazil and Dr. Luis Cifuentes in Chile, the researchers evaluated mortality from all causes and in different age groups, using a common analytic framework. They analyzed mortality in each city and the region as a whole, and explored two pollutant models in individual cities. They also used two meta-analytic statistical techniques to further analyze the effects from individual cities.

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Subchronic Exposure Results: Biologic Responses in Rats and Mice and Assessment of Genotoxicity

Jacob D McDonald
Jeffrey C Bemis
Lance M Hallberg
Daniel J Conklin
Maiying Kong
September 2012
Research Report 166

This report provides the first systematic look at the health effects of exposures to emissions from a new-technology heavy-duty diesel engine. Included in this report are results obtained in rats and mice exposed for 1 and 3 months (and some results in rats at 12 months) to exhaust from a 2007-compliant diesel engine with aftertreatment to reduce particulate matter concentrations. Part 1 describes the core inhalation study by Drs. Jake McDonald and Joe Mauderly of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, with results on general organ toxicity, lung histopathology, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in blood and lung lavage fluid. Parts 2 and 3 describe studies by Drs. Jeffrey Bemis of Litron Laboratories and Lance Hallberg of the University of Texas Medical Branch, respectively, assessing genotoxic endpoints in the exposed rodents. Part 4 describes a study of vascular markers by Daniel Conklin of the University of Louisville. The Preface to this report contains background information about the planning and designing of the study, including decisions regarding the diesel exhaust dilutions and the choice of rodent strains.

Impact of the 1990 Hong Kong Legislation for Restriction on Sulfur Content in Fuel

Chit-Ming Wong
Ari Rabl
Thuan Q Thach
Yuen Kwan Chau
King Pan Chan
Benjamin J Cowling
Hak Kan Lai
Tai Hing Lam
Sarah M McGhee
H Ross Anderson
Anthony J Hedley
August 2012
Research Report 170

This report describes a study to explore the role that specific chemical constituents of particulate air pollution may have played in effects on daily mortality observed after the 1990 Hong Kong restriction on sulfur in fuels. The study was part of HEI's Outcomes Research program, which aims to assess the health impacts of actions taken to improve air quality. Dr. Chit-Ming Wong of the University of Hong Kong and his team also developed methods to estimate the impacts on life expectancy of the 1990 sulfur restriction.

Update Summer 2012

Health Effects Institute
July 2012
Newsletter

Contents: HEI research contributes to international (IARC) review of diesel and gasoline cancer risk; Annual Conference highlights new PM, diesel, and ozone findings, major issues; Air quality outcomes of national limits on power plant emissions; Study tests potential uses of satellite-based PM measurements.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions of Young Children for Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

HEI Collaborative Working Group on Air Pollution, Poverty, and Health in Ho Chi Minh City
June 2012
Research Report 169

This report describes a study to investigate the relationships among daily variations in air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, hospital admissions for acute lower respiratory infections in children under age 5, and poverty. The study was part of HEI's Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program and is the first study of air quality and health to be performed in Vietnam. The team of investigators, led by Drs. Le Truong Giang, Long Ngo, and Sumi Mehta, collected daily pollutant data for PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at multiple locations throughout the city and obtained admissions data from the two pediatric hospitals in HCMC. They then performed statistical analysis on the data using Poisson time-series and case–crossover methods.

Assessment and Statistical Modeling of the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Aerosol Optical Depth and PM2.5 in the Eastern United States

Christopher J Paciorek
Yang Liu
May 2012
Research Report 167

This report describes a study to assess the ability of satellite-based measurements from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellites to fill spatial and temporal gaps in existing monitoring networks in the eastern United States. Dr. Paciorek and colleagues developed statistical models for integrating monitoring, satellite, and geographic information system (GIS) data to estimate monthly ambient PM2.5 concentrations and used those models to estimate monthly average PM2.5 concentrations across the eastern United States. They then developed and applied statistical methods to quantify how uncertainties in exposure estimates based on ground-level monitoring data might be reduced. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.

Update Spring 2012

Health Effects Institute
April 2012
Newsletter
Contents: Greenbaum Testifies on "Producing Credible Science for Decisions"; New HEI Health Effects Study of Modern Diesel Engine Emissions; Health Outcomes and Biomarkers Studies Approved; Multicity Study in Latin America; Air Pollution and Children's Health in Vietnam; HEI in the News; Communication 17: ACES Exposure Atmosphere; Annual Report Now Available; New Global Burden of Disease Estimates; HEI Investigator Wins Haagen-Smit Prize; Workshop on Assessing Exposure to Pollution from Traffic; IARC Review of Diesel and Gasoline Exhaust

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Phase 3A: Characterization of U.S. 2007-Compliant Diesel Engine and Exposure System Operation

Joe L Mauderly
Jacob D McDonald
February 2012
Communication 17
Communication 17 describes Phase 3A of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) to test emissions and health effects of emissions from 2007- and 2010-compliant diesel engines. The Communication contains results from the characterization of exposure atmospheres by Drs. Joe Mauderly and Jake McDonald at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in advance of the start of animal toxicity testing in ACES Phase 3B. It provides important background information on the emissions from one selected 2007-compliant engine and their concentrations in the animal exposure chambers.

Allergic Inflammation in the Human Lower Respiratory Tract Affected by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

Marc A Riedl
David Diaz-Sanchez
William S Linn
Henry Gong Jr
Kenneth W Clark
Richard M Effros
J Wayne Miller
David R Cocker
Kiros T Berhane
February 2012
Research Report 165

This report describes a study evaluating the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the lower airways and blood of allergic asthmatic participants. The study by Dr. Riedl and colleagues was funded as part of HEI's research program looking at diesel exhaust and other particle exposures and allergic response. The participants were exposed in random order to 100 µg/m3 diesel exhaust or 0.35 ppm nitrogen dioxide for 2 hours, with or without an allergen inhalation challenge. The investigators measured multiple physiologic and pulmonary function endpoints, including specific airway resistance, oxygen saturation, bronchial reactivity, and inflammatory and immunologic endpoints.

Assessment of the Health Impacts of Particulate Matter Characteristics

Michelle L Bell
January 2012
Research Report 161

This report describes a study by Dr. Michelle Bell of Yale University to evaluate the effects of exposure to components of the PM2.5 mixture on short-term morbidity and mortality, using data on 52 components of PM2.5 for 187 US counties. The report explores regional and seasonal variation in the chemical composition of PM2.5 and whether this variation affects the association between short-term exposure to PM and health effects. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.

Update Winter 2012

Health Effects Institute
January 2012
Newsletter

Contents: Effects of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Persons with Asthma and Allergy; Workshop Brings Experts Together: Atmospheric Chemists and Health Effects Scientists Meet at HEI to Discuss Common Goals; Symposium Sheds Light on Air Toxics Hot Spots; Wood Stove Changeout Program Brings Some Improvements in Health, Air Quality; Three New HEI Studies Launched: Ozone Exposure and Inflammatory Cells / PM Exposure and Heart Rhythm / Impact of Exposure in Early Life; ACES Reaches Important Milestones; New Investigator Awards Announced; Eaton Elected to Institute of Medicine.

Assessing the Impact of a Wood Stove Replacement Program on Air Quality and Children’s Health

Curtis W Noonan
Tony J Ward
William Navidi
Lianne Sheppard
Megan Bergauff
Chris Palmer
December 2011
Research Report 162
This report describes a study evaluating a community-wide program to improve air quality in a rural mountain community (Libby, Montana) by replacing older, more polluting wood stoves with new, less polluting stoves. Over the course of 4 winters, Dr. Noonan and colleagues measured PM2.5 and markers for wood smoke outdoors, in schools, and in about 20 homes before and after stove changeout. In parallel, they tracked children's respiratory symptoms (based on parental surveys) and school absences.

Pulmonary Particulate Matter and Systemic Microvascular Dysfunction

Timothy R Nurkiewicz
Dale W Porter
Ann F Hubbs
Samuel Stone
Amy M Moseley
Jared L Cumpston
Adam G Goodwill
Stephanie J Frisbee
Peter L Perrotta
Robert W Brock
Jefferson C Frisbee
Matthew A Boegehold
David G Frazer
Bean T Chen
Vincent Castranova
December 2011
Research Report 164

This report describes a study that evaluated whether exposure to fine or nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles may affect cardiovascular endpoints, in particular endothelium-dependent vascular dilation. Dr. Nurkiewicz and colleagues exposed rats via inhalation to 0.5 to 20 mg/m3 TiO2 for up to 12 hours and evaluated them for vascular dilation and for markers of oxidative stress, coagulation, and inflammation. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.   

The London Low Emission Zone Baseline Study

Frank Kelly
Ben Armstrong
Richard Atkinson
H Ross Anderson
Benjamin Barratt
Sean Beevers
Derek Cook
David Green
Dick Derwent
Ian Mudway
Paul Wilkinson
November 2011
Research Report 163

This report describes a study evaluating the feasibility of studying potential changes in air quality and health associated with the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ), which went into effect in 2008 and restricts entry of older, more polluting vehicles into Greater London. Based on their earlier study of London's Congestion Charging Scheme, Dr. Kelly and colleagues conducted emissions and exposure modeling to estimate the projected effects of LEZ implementation. They also assessed the feasibility of using medical records from private practices to evaluate the relationships between exposure to traffic and indicators of respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

Personal and Ambient Exposures to Air Toxics in Camden, New Jersey

Paul J Lioy
Zhihua (Tina) Fan
Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Panos Georgopoulos
Sheng-Wei Wang
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Xiangmei Wu
Xianlei Zhu
Jason Herrington
Xiaogang Tang
Qingyu Meng
Kyung Hwa Jung
Jaymin Kwon
Marta Hernandez
et al.
August 2011
Research Report 160

This report describes a study that tested whether an air toxics "hot spot" existed in Camden, NJ. Dr. Lioy and colleagues evaluated ambient and personal exposures of nonsmoking residents to PM2.5, VOCs, aldehydes, and PAHs in two neighborhoods in Camden, NJ, one of which was hypothesized to be a regional air toxics "hot spot." The investigators compared concentrations of air pollutants in the two neighborhoods with each other and then with concentrations at other locations in the United States. They also assessed the effects of seasonality, contributions from mobile sources, and spatial variability.

Air Toxics Exposure from Vehicle Emissions at a U.S. Border Crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study

John Spengler
Jamson Lwebuga-Mukasa
Jose Vallarino
Steve Melly
Steve Chillrud
Joel Baker
Taeko Minegishi
July 2011
Research Report 158

This report describes a study that tested whether emissions from traffic caused an air toxics "hot spot" in a neighborhood in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Spengler and colleagues hypothesized that vehicle-related emissions from heavy traffic at the Peace Bridge in Buffalo, one of the nation's busiest border crossings and a potential air pollution hot spot, would result in elevated downwind levels of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other traffic-related pollutants. The investigators measured levels of a large number of MSATs as well as six criteria pollutants using both fixed-site and mobile monitoring in order to examine the relation between traffic at the bridge and the spatial distribution of ambient pollutant concentrations at the bridge and in an adjacent neighborhood.

Role of Neprilysin in Airway Inflammation Induced by Diesel Exhaust Emissions

Simon S Wong
Nina N Sun
Cynthia D Fastje
Mark L Witten
R Clark Lantz
Bao Lu
Duane L Sherrill
Craig J Gerard
Jefferey L Burgess
June 2011
Research Report 159

This report evaluates airway inflammatory responses and expression of the enzyme neprilysin in response to diesel exhaust particle exposure. Dr. Wong and colleagues hypothesized that components of diesel exhaust decrease neprilysin levels in airways, leading to airway function disorders and heightened responses to diesel exhaust. They exposed normal mice, mice genetically deficient in neprilysin, human subjects, and human airway epithelial cells to diesel exhaust particles and measured airway inflammation, neprilysin expression, and any unique responses in neprilysin-deficient mice.

The Impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on Air Quality in London

Frank Kelly
H Ross Anderson
Ben Armstrong
Richard Atkinson
Benjamin Barratt
Sean Beevers
Dick Derwent
David Green
Ian Mudway
Paul Wilkinson
April 2011
Research Report 155

This report describes a study that was funded under HEI's research program aimed at measuring the possible health impacts associated with actions taken to improve air quality (health outcomes research). Dr. Kelly and colleagues used a multifaceted approach to exploring the impact of the Congestion Charging Scheme on air quality, which involved a variety of emissions and exposure modeling techniques, analysis of air monitoring data, and a newly developed assay for the oxidative potential of particulate matter collected on filters at urban backgrounds and roadside monitors.

Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): Coordinated Studies of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Two Indian Cities

Kalpana Balakrishnan
et al.
Uma Rajarathnam
et al.
March 2011
Research Report 157

This report contains studies in Chennai and Delhi led by Dr. Kalpana Balakrishnan and Dr. Uma Rajarathnam, respectively. These time-series studies of air pollution and mortality in India were funded under HEI's PAPA Program to provide information to inform regulatory and other decisions that would be relevant to local populations, with the added goal of supporting scientific capacity building in the region.

The Future of Vehicle Fuels and Technologies: Anticipating Health Benefits and Challenges

Health Effects Institute
February 2011
Communication 16

This report reviews new vehicle fuels and technologies that are likely to be commercially available within the next 10 years in the United States and other industrialized countries at a level that could result in significant population exposure. It highlights expected changes in emissions and other effects from the use of each technology and fuel, along with any life-cycle and regulatory issues.

Concentrations of Air Toxics in Motor Vehicle-Dominated Environments

Eric M Fujita
David E Campbell
Barbara Zielinska
William P Arnott
Judith C Chow
February 2011
Research Report 156

This report describes research funded under HEI's Air Toxics Hot Spot program. Dr. Eric Fujita and colleagues characterized concentrations of mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) and other pollutants in potential Los Angeles County pollution hot spots, including on urban highways with a varying mix of gasoline- and diesel-powered traffic and sites at various distances from the highways and close to other roads.

Improved Source Apportionment and Speciation of Low-Volume Particulate Matter Samples

James J Schauer
Brian J Majestic
Rebecca J Sheesley
Martin M Shafer
Jeffrey T DeMinter
Mark Mieritz
December 2010
Research Report 153

This report investigates methods with the high sensitivity and low limits of detection needed to analyze a wide range of chemical species in particulate matter collected with personal samplers. Dr. Schauer and colleagues developed sensitive methods to detect trace metals, nonpolar organic compounds, and polar organic compounds in personal samples collected in exposure studies. Methods used in this study are of interest to researchers seeking to gain greater insight into the relationships between the components of inhalable particulates and their health effects.