This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 51 - 75 of 295. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.

New Statistical Approaches to Semiparametric Regression with Application to Air Pollution Research

James M Robins
Peng Zhang
Rajeev Ayyagari
Roger Logan
Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
Lingling Li
Thomas Lumley
Aad van der Vaart
November 2013
Research Report 175

This report describes semiparametric methods for epidemiologic investigations of the short-term effects of air pollution on health, intended specifically to improve the reliability of point estimates and confidence intervals. Dr. James Robins of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues developed the new methods, used simulations to compare them with other methods, and applied them to a large epidemiologic data set from the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to assess their effectiveness. The report is accompanied by a short editorial to assist the reader in understanding this study and its contributions to epidemiologic methods for air pollution.

Update Fall 2013

Health Effects Institute
November 2013

Contents: HEI NPACT Studies Examine Effects of PM Sources and Components; New Studies Aim to Improve Knowledge of Exposure to Traffic; New Statisticians for the Research and Review Committees; HEI Investigator Wins Friedlander Award; Scientists Share Global Perspectives at ISEE Conference; O'Keefe Delivers Inaugural Address at Major Emissions Control Meeting in Delhi

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative: Integrated Epidemiologic and Toxicologic Studies of the Health Effects of Particulate Matter Components

Morton Lippmann
Lung Chi Chen
Terry Gordon
Kazuhiko Ito
George D Thurston
October 2013
Research Report 177

This report describes the results of a study of long-term effects of PM components in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II cohort; a time-series study of short-term effects of PM components on cardiovascular and other diseases in people living in 150 U.S. cities; and two toxicologic studies in animals exposed by inhalation to concentrated ambient particles, and in animals and human cells exposed to particles collected on filters from five different airsheds across the United States. This report, along with Research Report 178 (Vedal et al.), is one of HEI's National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) studies, which describe the most systematic multidisciplinary studies to date to investigate the health effects of PM components in humans and animal models at locations across the United States where the effects of PM sources and components may differ. The report includes a Commentary and a Synthesis by the NPACT Review Panel.

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative Report on Cardiovascular Effects

Sverre Vedal
Matthew J Campen
Jacob D McDonald
Joel D Kaufman
Timothy V Larson
Paul D Sampson
Lianne Sheppard
Christopher D Simpson
Adam A Szpiro
October 2013
Research Report 178

This report describes the results of two cohort studies of long-term effects of PM components on subclinical and clinical markers of cardiovascular diseases and a toxicologic study in which animals were exposed to mixtures of vehicle engine emissions and non-vehicular PM and analyzed for vascular effects. Section 3 contains an integrated discussion of the studies. This report, along with Research Report 177 (Lippmann et al.), is one of HEI's National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) studies, which describe the most systematic multidisciplinary studies to date to investigate the health effects of PM components in humans and animal models at locations across the United States where the effects of PM sources and components may differ. The report includes a Commentary and a Synthesis by the NPACT Review Panel.

Effect of Air Pollution Control on Mortality and Hospital Admissions in Ireland

Douglas W Dockery
David Q Rich
Patrick G Goodman
Luke Clancy
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Prethibha George
Tania Kotlov
July 2013
Research Report 176

This report revisits an earlier study of the air pollution and health impacts of a coal ban in Dublin, Ireland, and then extends the analysis to coal bans in 11 additional Irish cities. Dr. Douglas W. Dockery of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues evaluated changes in black smoke and sulfur dioxide concentrations for the 5 years before and after the coal bans and examined how those changes related to mortality and hospitalization rates in the counties affected by the bans, as compared with other counties where coal bans were not implemented. They also included in their analysis other trends in health and social factors that were occurring at the same time.

Update Summer 2013

Health Effects Institute
July 2013

Contents: Annual Conference Showcases HEI's Scientific Program; Did the Irish Coal Bans Improve Air Quality and Health? Novel Approaches to Analyzing Health Effects Data; Board Seeks New Review Committee Chair; HEI Moving to Improve the Way it Communicates; Expert Group Conducts Peer Review of ACES Pathology Results

Update Spring 2013

Health Effects Institute
May 2013

This newsletter reports on an expert panel named to review diesel epidemiology studies, two HEI Asia workshops on the global health impact of air pollution, and a meeting of HEI's Research Committee and sponsors reviewing progress and priorities, as well as HEI in the news.

Cardiorespiratory Biomarker Responses in Healthy Young Adults to Drastic Air Quality Changes Surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics

Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Tong Zhu
Howard Kipen
Guangfa Wang
Wei Huang
David Rich
Ping Zhu
Yuedan Wang
Shou-En Lu
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Scott Diehl
Min Hu
Jian Tong
Jicheng Gong
Duncan Thomas
March 2013
Research Report 174

This report describes a study to evaluate a series of aggressive policies intended to reduce local and regional emissions in the greater Beijing metropolitan area leading up to and during the 2008 Olympics. Dr. Junfeng (Jim) Zhang of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and colleagues evaluated the impact of the likely changes in air pollution levels on cardiovascular responses in 125 healthy young participants before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. The investigators used mixed models and time-series methods to analyze associations between pollutant levels and biomarkers.

Selective Detection and Characterization of Nanoparticles from Motor Vehicles

Murray V Johnston
Joseph P Klems
Christopher A Zordan
M Ross Pennington
James N Smith
February 2013
Research Report 173

This report describes a study in which a nano aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS) was used to study composition of nanoparticles in real time near a major roadway intersection. Dr. Murray V. Johnston of the University of Delaware, Newark, and colleagues conducted a field test in Wilmington, Delaware, to evaluate performance of the instrument in a real-world setting and to assess whether it could aid in identifying the major source contributions to nanoparticle spikes and background levels, including distinguishing diesel from gasoline vehicles.

Update Winter 2013

Health Effects Institute
February 2013

Contents: Review of Ultrafine Particles Examines Wide Range of Health Studies; Timely Topics, Great City Highlight HEI Annual Conference; Tool Helps Identify Nanoparticles from Motor Vehicles; Air Pollution Controls During 2008 Beijing Olympics; Science Workshop to Inform European Union Policies; Study Finds Ambient Air Pollution Among Top Global Health Risks; ACES Emissions Testing and Animal Exposures Now Complete

Understanding the Health Effects of Ambient Ultrafine Particles

Health Effects Institute
January 2013
Perspectives 3

Perspectives 3 is the third of a series produced by HEI to describe and interpret results from HEI and other research bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience interested in environmental health. Perspectives 3 focuses on the health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) and was developed under the guidance of a special HEI Review Panel. It examines the contribution of motor vehicles within the broader context of the multiple sources of ambient UFPs and explores the evidence from experimental studies in animals and in humans, as well as observational epidemiologic studies of people exposed to UFPs in the environment. It also identifies some of the broader lessons about both the specific health effects associated with exposure to UFPs and possible directions for future studies that could enhance our understanding of emissions, exposures, and effects of UFPs.

Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs

Thomas J Smith
Mary E Davis
Jaime E Hart
Andrew Blicharz
Francine Laden
Eric Garshick
December 2012
Research Report 172

This report describes a study that measured concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in locations with potentially high levels of air pollution that could make them "hot spots" for human exposure. Dr. Thomas Smith of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues measured pollutant concentrations at upwind and downwind locations at the perimeter of the terminals, as well as inside truck cabs, at 15 truck terminals.

Accountability Analysis of Title IV Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

Richard D Morgenstern
Winston Harrington
Jhih-Shyang Shih
Michelle L Bell
November 2012
Research Report 168

This report describes a study that analyzed the relationships between reductions in pollutants from power plants and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the eastern United States between 1999 and 2005. Dr. Richard D. Morgenstern of Resources for the Future and colleagues used a novel data-driven source-receptor model to explore the statistical relationships between source emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides and monitored concentrations of PM2.5. They performed various external comparisons of their models, and compared the reductions to an estimated counterfactual scenario in which no mandated reductions in SO2 occurred.

Update Fall 2012

Health Effects Institute
November 2012

This update describes a new Diesel Epidemiology Project; a call for Research Proposals: Improving Traffic Exposure Analysis for Health Studies; the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study nearing completion; a new member of the Research Committee; a visit from Japanese Auto Officials; and two new Research Reports on Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs and on the Impact of 1990 Hong Kong Limits on Sulfur Content in Fuel. 

Multicity Study of Air Pollution and Mortality in Latin America (The ESCALA Study)

Isabelle Romieu
Nelson Gouveia
Luis A. Cifuentes
and teams of investigators in Brazil, Chile and Mexico
October 2012
Research Report 171

This report describes the first-ever multicity study to estimate the effect of short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10) and to ozone on mortality in nine Latin American cities. Led by Dr. Isabelle Romieu in Mexico, in collaboration with Dr. Nelson Gouveia in Brazil and Dr. Luis Cifuentes in Chile, the researchers evaluated mortality from all causes and in different age groups, using a common analytic framework. They analyzed mortality in each city and the region as a whole, and explored two pollutant models in individual cities. They also used two meta-analytic statistical techniques to further analyze the effects from individual cities.

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Subchronic Exposure Results: Biologic Responses in Rats and Mice and Assessment of Genotoxicity

Jacob D McDonald
Jeffrey C Bemis
Lance M Hallberg
Daniel J Conklin
Maiying Kong
September 2012
Research Report 166

This report provides the first systematic look at the health effects of exposures to emissions from a new-technology heavy-duty diesel engine. Included in this report are results obtained in rats and mice exposed for 1 and 3 months (and some results in rats at 12 months) to exhaust from a 2007-compliant diesel engine with aftertreatment to reduce particulate matter concentrations. Part 1 describes the core inhalation study by Drs. Jake McDonald and Joe Mauderly of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, with results on general organ toxicity, lung histopathology, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in blood and lung lavage fluid. Parts 2 and 3 describe studies by Drs. Jeffrey Bemis of Litron Laboratories and Lance Hallberg of the University of Texas Medical Branch, respectively, assessing genotoxic endpoints in the exposed rodents. Part 4 describes a study of vascular markers by Daniel Conklin of the University of Louisville. The Preface to this report contains background information about the planning and designing of the study, including decisions regarding the diesel exhaust dilutions and the choice of rodent strains.

Impact of the 1990 Hong Kong Legislation for Restriction on Sulfur Content in Fuel

Chit-Ming Wong
Ari Rabl
Thuan Q Thach
Yuen Kwan Chau
King Pan Chan
Benjamin J Cowling
Hak Kan Lai
Tai Hing Lam
Sarah M McGhee
H Ross Anderson
Anthony J Hedley
August 2012
Research Report 170

This report describes a study to explore the role that specific chemical constituents of particulate air pollution may have played in effects on daily mortality observed after the 1990 Hong Kong restriction on sulfur in fuels. The study was part of HEI's Outcomes Research program, which aims to assess the health impacts of actions taken to improve air quality. Dr. Chit-Ming Wong of the University of Hong Kong and his team also developed methods to estimate the impacts on life expectancy of the 1990 sulfur restriction.

Update Summer 2012

Health Effects Institute
July 2012

Contents: HEI research contributes to international (IARC) review of diesel and gasoline cancer risk; Annual Conference highlights new PM, diesel, and ozone findings, major issues; Air quality outcomes of national limits on power plant emissions; Study tests potential uses of satellite-based PM measurements.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions of Young Children for Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

HEI Collaborative Working Group on Air Pollution, Poverty, and Health in Ho Chi Minh City
June 2012
Research Report 169

This report describes a study to investigate the relationships among daily variations in air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, hospital admissions for acute lower respiratory infections in children under age 5, and poverty. The study was part of HEI's Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program and is the first study of air quality and health to be performed in Vietnam. The team of investigators, led by Drs. Le Truong Giang, Long Ngo, and Sumi Mehta, collected daily pollutant data for PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at multiple locations throughout the city and obtained admissions data from the two pediatric hospitals in HCMC. They then performed statistical analysis on the data using Poisson time-series and case–crossover methods.

Assessment and Statistical Modeling of the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Aerosol Optical Depth and PM2.5 in the Eastern United States

Christopher J Paciorek
Yang Liu
May 2012
Research Report 167

This report describes a study to assess the ability of satellite-based measurements from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellites to fill spatial and temporal gaps in existing monitoring networks in the eastern United States. Dr. Paciorek and colleagues developed statistical models for integrating monitoring, satellite, and geographic information system (GIS) data to estimate monthly ambient PM2.5 concentrations and used those models to estimate monthly average PM2.5 concentrations across the eastern United States. They then developed and applied statistical methods to quantify how uncertainties in exposure estimates based on ground-level monitoring data might be reduced. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.

Update Spring 2012

Health Effects Institute
April 2012
Contents: Greenbaum Testifies on "Producing Credible Science for Decisions"; New HEI Health Effects Study of Modern Diesel Engine Emissions; Health Outcomes and Biomarkers Studies Approved; Multicity Study in Latin America; Air Pollution and Children's Health in Vietnam; HEI in the News; Communication 17: ACES Exposure Atmosphere; Annual Report Now Available; New Global Burden of Disease Estimates; HEI Investigator Wins Haagen-Smit Prize; Workshop on Assessing Exposure to Pollution from Traffic; IARC Review of Diesel and Gasoline Exhaust

Allergic Inflammation in the Human Lower Respiratory Tract Affected by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

Marc A Riedl
David Diaz-Sanchez
William S Linn
Henry Gong Jr
Kenneth W Clark
Richard M Effros
J Wayne Miller
David R Cocker
Kiros T Berhane
February 2012
Research Report 165

This report describes a study evaluating the effects of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the lower airways and blood of allergic asthmatic participants. The study by Dr. Riedl and colleagues was funded as part of HEI's research program looking at diesel exhaust and other particle exposures and allergic response. The participants were exposed in random order to 100 µg/m3 diesel exhaust or 0.35 ppm nitrogen dioxide for 2 hours, with or without an allergen inhalation challenge. The investigators measured multiple physiologic and pulmonary function endpoints, including specific airway resistance, oxygen saturation, bronchial reactivity, and inflammatory and immunologic endpoints.

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Phase 3A: Characterization of U.S. 2007-Compliant Diesel Engine and Exposure System Operation

Joe L Mauderly
Jacob D McDonald
February 2012
Communication 17
Communication 17 describes Phase 3A of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) to test emissions and health effects of emissions from 2007- and 2010-compliant diesel engines. The Communication contains results from the characterization of exposure atmospheres by Drs. Joe Mauderly and Jake McDonald at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in advance of the start of animal toxicity testing in ACES Phase 3B. It provides important background information on the emissions from one selected 2007-compliant engine and their concentrations in the animal exposure chambers.

Assessment of the Health Impacts of Particulate Matter Characteristics

Michelle L Bell
January 2012
Research Report 161

This report describes a study by Dr. Michelle Bell of Yale University to evaluate the effects of exposure to components of the PM2.5 mixture on short-term morbidity and mortality, using data on 52 components of PM2.5 for 187 US counties. The report explores regional and seasonal variation in the chemical composition of PM2.5 and whether this variation affects the association between short-term exposure to PM and health effects. This study was funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award.

Update Winter 2012

Health Effects Institute
January 2012

Contents: Effects of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Persons with Asthma and Allergy; Workshop Brings Experts Together: Atmospheric Chemists and Health Effects Scientists Meet at HEI to Discuss Common Goals; Symposium Sheds Light on Air Toxics Hot Spots; Wood Stove Changeout Program Brings Some Improvements in Health, Air Quality; Three New HEI Studies Launched: Ozone Exposure and Inflammatory Cells / PM Exposure and Heart Rhythm / Impact of Exposure in Early Life; ACES Reaches Important Milestones; New Investigator Awards Announced; Eaton Elected to Institute of Medicine