Diesel Exhaust

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Research Report 64
Karam El-Bayoumy
Bruce E Johnson
Ajit K Roy
Pramod Upadhyaya
Syrus J Partian
April 1994

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-substituted derivatives (nitro-PAHs), products of incomplete combustion, is widespread. This is of concern because individual PAHs and PAH-containing mixtures cause tumors in animals and they are suspected to contribute to human cancer. To asses their carcinogenic potential in humans, biomarkers of PAH exposure that measure the internal dose or the effective dose need to be developed. Dr.

Research Report 61
Roger W Giese
Paul Vouros
October 1993

Both environmental and genetic factors are believed to contribute to the multistage process that results in carcinogenesis. Therefore, determining the health risks associated with exposure to known and suspected carcinogenic chemicals is essential for informed decision-making by regulatory agencies. Dr. Roger W. Giese and colleagues at Northeastern University developed sensitive and specific techniques for measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts, a class of DNA adducts associated with exposure to constituents of diesel emissions and other combustion products.

Research Report 56
Susan T Bagley
Linda D Gratz
David G Leddy
John H Johnson
July 1993

Devices have been developed to reduce particle emissions from vehicles with diesel engines, such as a trap that filters the particles from the exhaust. Periodically, the trap is cleaned (regenerated) by electric heating, thereby burning the particles before they can clog the trap. There is concern that potentially harmful chemicals associated with the particles may be emitted from the trap during normal use and regeneration. Dr.

Research Report 55
Veronica M Maher
Nitai P Bhattacharyya
M Chia-Miao Mah
Janet Boldt
Jia-Ling Yang
J Justin McCormick
March 1993

Nitropyrenes, which form during diesel fuel combustion, cause mutations and are carcinogenic in some animals. Dr. Veronica Maher and colleagues at Michigan State University studied the effect of nitropyrene-DNA adducts on gene mutation. The investigators exposed a specific gene, in culture, to each of two nitropyrene derivatives. They then (1) compared the number of adducts formed by each derivative, (2) analyzed the chemical structure of the adducts, and (3) determined in which region of the DNA the adducts formed.

Research Report 46
Frederick A Beland
December 1991

Nitropyrenes are a class of chemicals found in diesel engine exhaust that can form DNA adducts and are suspected animal carcinogens. Dr. Beland at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences examined the relationship between DNA adducts and cancer in laboratory animals treated with 1-nitropyrene, the major nitropyrene present in diesel engine exhaust. The investigator used state-of-the-art techniques to study DNA adducts formed from 1-nitropyrene under different conditions of exposure, with an emphasis on identifying unique adducts that had not been recognized before.

Research Report 45
Michael T Kleinman
William J Mautz
October 1991

The human health effects that result from breathing air pollutants depend on the amount of pollutant inhaled from the air (exposure dose) and the amount of inhaled material that stays in the respiratory tract (retained dose). Because the retained dose of a pollutant may damage the respiratory tract and cause disease, it is a key factor for determining appropriate government regulations for air pollutants. Drs.

Research Report 40
CP Yu
KJ Yoon
May 1991

This report describes a study by Drs. Yu and Yoon to mathematically predict the lung burden in rats and humans of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from automobile emissions. Building on a previously constructed model describing DEP deposition, the present work focused on clearance and retention of DEPs deposited in the lung. The transport rates of each component of DEPs were derived using experimental data and mathematical approximations. The complete model was first developed for rats and then extrapolated to humans of different age groups.

Research Report 37
David A Johnson
R Steve Winters
Kwan R Lee
Craig E Smith
December 1990

This report describes a study by Dr. Johnson and colleagues to test the hypothesis that inhaled oxidants can cause lung damage by inactivating the proteinase inhibitors that normally protect the lung from proteolysis. In the first set of experiments, the functional activity of rat alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (á1-PI) was measured in rat lung lavage fluid from rats exposed acutely or chronically to varying concentrations of NO2, diesel exhaust, O3, and O3 in conjunction with CO2.

Research Report 33
Marc B Schenker
Steven J Samuels
Norman Y Kado
S Katharine Hammond
Thomas J Smith
Susan R Woskie
October 1990

This report describes a study by Dr. Schenker and colleagues to investigate the usefulness of urinary mutagenicity as a biological marker of occupational diesel exhaust exposure. Personal exposure to diesel exhaust over 2 consecutive work shifts was monitored via personal air samplers in 87 railroad workers, with adjustment for first-hand and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Urine samples collected at the end of shifts were evaluated for mutagenicity and analyzed for any correlation with diesel exhaust exposure.

Research Report 34
Alan M Jeffrey
Regina M Santella
Diana Wong
Ling-Ling Hsieh
Volker Heisig
George Doskocil
Soraya Ghayourmanesh
July 1990

This report describes a study by Dr. Jeffrey and colleagues to investigate the potential genotoxicity of components of diesel engine emissions using a variety of biological systems. In the first set of in vitro experiments, radiolabeled nitropyrenes were administered to DNA isolated from human bronchial tissue, mouse embryo fibroblasts, and rabbit tracheal tissue, and elution times were compared by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Antisera antibodies were also prepared against DNA modified by 1-nitrosopyrene to test for the presence of DNA adducts.