Air Pollution

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Research Report 122
Alison S Geyh
Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
November 2004

Dr Alison S Geyh and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University evaluated the personal and microenvironmental aerosol speciation sampler (PMASS) prototype developed by Dr. Susanne Hering with HEI funding (HEI Research Report 114). The precision and accuracy of the prototype, which measures PM2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate, was evaluated in two locations with different PM composition. Baltimore, Maryland (outdoors), and Fresno, California (indoors). Geyh and colleagues set a target of 10% precision and 10% accuracy for all species measured.

Research Report 121
Maire SA Heikkinen
Yair Hazi
Hai Gao
Paul Peters
Morton Lippmann
September 2004

Dr. Beverly Cohen and her colleagues at New York University School of Medicine tested the performance of iron nanofilms to collect and measure sulfuric acid particles of different sizes under a variety of temperature and humidity conditions. The iron nanofilm detector is a thin iron-coated silicon chip. Particles would react with the iron, creating an elevated site or bump on the film surface, which can be visualized using an atomic force microscope.

Special Report 15
Health Effects Institute
April 2004

A Special Report by the HEI International Scientific Oversight Committee of HEI Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Program (a program of the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities). This first publication to come from HEI's PAPA Program was undertaken to help inform the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities. This special report has identified and summarized more than 135 studies of air pollution and health conducted across Asia. In addition, it critically reviews for the first time a key subset of these studies: 28 studies of daily mortality. The report is a valuable resource for policy makers in Asia and beyond.

Research Report 119
Robert A Yokel
Janelle S Crossgrove
January 2004

Drs. Yokel and Crossgrove at the University of Kentucky Medical Center studied the mechanisms by which manganese enters and leaves the brain across the blood–brain barrier and, in particular, whether transporter molecules are involved. The investigators used in vivo brain perfusion in rats as well as in vitro tests in several cell lines to assess specific characteristics of manganese transport, such as pH and energy dependence. Manganese transport rates were compared with those of sucrose and dextran, which do not easily cross the blood–brain barrier.

Special Report
Health Effects Institute
May 2003

Over the past decade, time-series studies conducted in many cities have contributed information about the association between daily changes in concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) and daily morbidity and mortality. In 2002, however, investigators at Johns Hopkins University and at Health Canada identified issues in the statistical model used in the majority of time-series studies. This HEI Special Report details attempts to address several questions raised by these discoveries.

Research Report 114
Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
February 2003

Dr. Susanne Hering of Aerosol Dynamics Inc and her colleagues set out to design and validate a personal monitoring sampler for particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) that is suitable for subsequent chemical speciation work. The sampler intended to meet the measurement needs for PM2.5 mass concentration and several of its major constituents including elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates.

Communication 9
Health Effects Institute
August 2001

The fuel efficiency and durability of diesel technology are particularly desirable in the transportation and construction industries. Concerns about the health effects of diesel particulate emissions have led to progressively stricter emission standards, which can be met only through new technologic advances and fuel modifications. The cerium-based fuel additive Eolys, used in conjunction with a particulate filter, is one of the approaches being considered. However, this additive will result in emissions of cerium compounds and an increase in cerium in the ambient air and soil.

Research Report 94-I
Jonathan M Samet
Francesca Dominici
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Douglas W Dockery
June 2000

In an effort to address the uncertainties regarding the association between PM and daily mortality, and to determine the effects of other pollutants on this association, HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS). Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University, in collaboration with investigators at Harvard University, conducted this time-series study in large cities across the US where levels of PM and gaseous pollutants were varied.

Communication 8
Health Effects Institute
October 1999
Report of the Joint Meeting of the EC and HEI, held in Brussels, Belgium, January 14–15 1999. The following topics were discussed: What Are People Exposed To and Where Do Particles Come From? What Is Known About the Health Effects of PM? What New Research Results Are Emerging? and Outstanding Questions and Gaps for 2003 and Beyond.
Research Report 89
Thomas Burbacher
October 1999

In an effort to improve air quality and decrease dependence on petroleum, alternative fuels such as methanol have been considered to substitute for gasoline or diesel fuel. Methanol is also a candidate to provide the hydrogen for fuel cells. Before people are exposed to increased concentrations of methanol, the potential health effects of such exposures require study. Dr. Burbacher and colleagues of the University of Washington studied the effects of long-term exposure to methanol vapors on metabolism and reproduction in adult female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and developmental effects in their offspring, who were exposed prenatally to methanol.