Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

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Validation and Evaluation of Biomarkers in Workers Exposed to Benzene in China

Qingshan Qu
Roy Shore
Guilan Li
Ximei Jin
Lung Chi Chen
Assieh A Melikian
David Eastmond
Stephen Rappaport
Heyi Li
Doppalapudi Rupa
Suramya Waidyanatha
Songnian Yin
Huifang Yan
Min Meng
Witold Winnik
et al.
June 2003
Research Report 115

Dr. Qingshan Qu and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine recruited 181 healthy workers in several factories in the Tianjin region of China. These subjects formed part of a cohort of thousands identified by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the China Academy of Preventive Medicine for a study to evaluate tumor incidence in benzene exposed workers (NCI/China study).

Biomarkers in Czech Workers Exposed to 1,3-Butadiene: A Transitional Epidemiologic Study

Richard J Albertini
Radim J Šrám
Pamela M Vacek
Jeremiah Lynch
Janice A Nicklas
Nico J van Sittert
Peter J Boogaard
Rogene F Henderson
James A Swenberg
Ad D Tates
Jonathan B Ward Jr
Michael Wright
et al.
June 2003
Research Report 116

Dr. Albertini and colleges organized a group of researchers from the United States, Czech Republic, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom to determine whether biomarkers in the blood and urine of workers exposed to butadiene in occupational settings correlated with their personal exposure. Samples were collected from male workers employed either in a plant that used butadiene and styrene to produce rubber polymer in Prague. They also collected blood and urine from male administrative workers at the plant who had no direct occupational exposure to butadiene and served as control subjects.

Biomarkers in Czech Workers Exposed to 1,3-Butadiene: A Transitional Epidemiologic Study

Richard J Albertini
Radim J Šrám
Pamela M Vacek
Jeremiah Lynch
Janice A Nicklas
Nico J van Sittert
Peter J Boogaard
Rogene F Henderson
James A Swenberg
Ad D Tates
Jonathan B Ward Jr
Michael Wright
et al.
June 2003
Research Report 116

Dr. Albertini and colleges organized a group of researchers from the United States, Czech Republic, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom to determine whether biomarkers in the blood and urine of workers exposed to butadiene in occupational settings correlated with their personal exposure. Samples were collected from male workers employed either in a plant that used butadiene and styrene to produce rubber polymer in Prague. They also collected blood and urine from male administrative workers at the plant who had no direct occupational exposure to butadiene and served as control subjects.

Revised Analyses of Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution and Health

Health Effects Institute
May 2003
Special Report

Over the past decade, time-series studies conducted in many cities have contributed information about the association between daily changes in concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) and daily morbidity and mortality. In 2002, however, investigators at Johns Hopkins University and at Health Canada identified issues in the statistical model used in the majority of time-series studies. This HEI Special Report details attempts to address several questions raised by these discoveries.

Improving Estimates of Diesel and Other Emissions for Epidemiologic Studies

Health Effects Institute
April 2003
Communication 10

Communication 10 contains proceedings of a workshop held in Baltimore, MD, December 4–6 2002. The workshop sought to address the search for a "Diesel Signature": Do We Have a Diesel Signature? Where Do We Go From Here? Communication 10 includes a workshop summary and reports from speakers on: Health Studies of Diesel Particulate Matter; Future Trends of Diesel Emissions; Diesel and Gasoline Particle Characteristics; Approaches to Particle Characterization; Diesel Source Signature Studies; Emissions and Air Quality Studies; Data Analysis Approaches.

Benzene Metabolism in Rodents at Doses Relevant to Human Exposure from Urban Air

Kenneth W Turteltaub
Chitra Mani
February 2003
Research Report 113

Drs Turteltaub and Mani at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigated benzene metabolism in rodents over a large dose range that encompassed concentrations close to those of human ambient exposure. Understanding benzene metabolism at low exposure levels is critical to benzene assessment to determine the shape of the dose-response curve at low concentrations.The investigators administered radioactive benzene to mice and rats and subsequently analyzed bone marrow, liver, urine, and plasma from these animals.

A Personal Particle Speciation Sampler

Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
February 2003
Research Report 114

Dr. Susanne Hering of Aerosol Dynamics Inc and her colleagues set out to design and validate a personal monitoring sampler for particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) that is suitable for subsequent chemical speciation work. The sampler intended to meet the measurement needs for PM2.5 mass concentration and several of its major constituents including elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates.

Particle Characteristics Responsible for Effects on Human Lung Epithelial Cells

Ann E Aust
James C Ball
Autumn A Hu
JoAnn S Lighty
Kevin R Smith
Ann M Straccia
John M Veranth
Willie C Young
December 2002
Research Report 110

Dr. Aust and her colleagues at Utah State University and Ford Motor company hypothesized that transition metals (metals that can participate in possibly toxic oxidative reactions) associated with particulate matter are released within lung epithelial cells and catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. The investigators focused their study on coal fly ash that was produced in the laboratory and separated into four size fractions.

Effect of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation Parameters in Rats

Christine Nadziejko
Kaijie Fang
Lung Chi Chen
Beverly Cohen
Margaret Karpatkin
Arthur Nádas
October 2002
Research Report 111

Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine evaluated the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators measured platelet number, blood cells counts, and levels of fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and factor VII of rats that were exposed to concentrated New York City particles and filtered air for 6 hours. Blood samples were obtained before and after exposure using an indwelling catheter.

Ozone-Induced Modulation of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Guinea Pigs

Richard B Schlesinger
Mitchell Cohen
Terry Gordon
Christine Nadziejko
Judith T Zelikoff
Maureen Sisco
Jean F Regal
Margaret G Ménache
June 2002
Research Report 109

Dr. Schlesinger and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine used a well-established animal model of airway hyperresponsiveness (a heightened tendency of the bronchial airways to constrict) and allergic asthma to determine whether ozone can induce airway hyperresponsiveness or exacerbate existing airway hyperresponsiveness. Male and female guinea pigs were exposed to ozone concentrations comparable to levels to which humans are exposed during periods of ozone pollution.

Case-Cohort Study of Styrene Exposure and Ischemic Heart Disease

Genevieve M Matanoski
Xuguang Tao
May 2002
Research Report 108

Drs. Matanoski and Tao at Johns Hopkins University examined the relationship between styrene exposure and heart disease in workers in styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing plants between 1943 and 1982. Workers who had died from ischemic heart disease were compared to a subgroup of all men employed in two styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing plants during that time. Individual exposure histories were determined from job records, or constructed using a statistical method to estimate exposure when records were missing.

Understanding the Health Effects of Components of the Particulate Matter Mix: Progress and Next Steps

Health Effects Institute
April 2002
Perspectives 2

Perspectives 2 is the second of a series produced by the HEI Health Review Committee to integrate findings across several HEI studies or entire research programs. The intent is to describe and interpret results bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience interested in environmental health.

Research Directions to Improve Estimates of Human Exposure and Risk from Diesel Exhaust

Health Effects Institute
April 2002
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Epidemiology Working Group. The Diesel Epidemiology Working Group was formed in the fall of 2000 to (1) review reports from 6 diesel feasibility studies funded by HEI to provide information on potential study populations and on exposure assessment methods; and (2) consider the results of the feasibility studies and other ongoing research in order to develop a new research agenda to seek better information for quantitative risk assessment of lung cancer and other chronic diseases that may result from exposure to diesel exhaust. The 6 feasibility studies described in this report were funded by HEI to provide insight about whether a new retrospective or prospective epidemiologic study could provide data to improve estimates of cancer risk from exposure to diesel exhaust, and about whether new methods of exposure analysis would allow us to reevaluate older epidemiologic studies.

Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Engines Measured in Highway Tunnels

Alan W Gertler
et al.
Daniel Grosjean
et al.
January 2002
Research Report 107

This report describes two studies that measured emissions in roadway tunnels. Dr. Alan Gertler and colleagues at the Desert Research Institute studied particulate matter emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel located on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Dr Daniel Grosjean and colleague at DGA, Inc studied carbonyl emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel and in the Caldecott Tunnel in California. The unique environment in tunnel studies allows the investigators to measure emission rates averaged over many vehicles, to determine the physical and chemical character of emissions under ambient conditions, and in some instances to compare current emissions with past emissions at the same location. Both groups of investigators also measured emissions at times when the proportions of gasoline engine vehicles and diesel engine vehicles differed, allowing them to estimate the differences between emissions from the two sources.

Pathogenomic Mechanisms for Particulate Matter Induction of Acute Lung Injury and Inflammation in Mice

George D Leikauf
Susan A McDowell
Scott C Wesselkamper
Clay R Miller
William D Hardie
Kelly Gammon
Pratim P Biswas
Thomas R Korfhagen
Cindy J Bachurski
Jonathan S Wiest
Klaus Willeke
Eula Bingham
John E Leikauf
Bruce J Aronow
et al.
December 2001
Research Report 105

Dr. Leikauf and colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center hypothesized that the response of mice exposed to high concentrations of inhaled nickel particles was under genetic control. Using nickel, a transition element shown to cause adverse effects at high concentrations in ambient air, the investigators sought to identify the genes involved in controlling the inflammatory and toxic effects of continuous exposure to nickel particles.

Effects of Combined Ozone and Air Pollution Particle Exposure in Mice

Lester Kobzik
Carroll-Ann W Goldsmith
Yao Yu Ning
Guozhong Qin
Bill Morgan
Amy Imrich
Joy Lawrence
GG Krishna Murthy
Paul J Catalano
December 2001
Research Report 106

Dr. Lester Kobzik and colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health used a mouse model of asthma to evaluate how inhaling pollutants affects the airways. The mice were sensitized to the allergen ovalbumin, which induces a lung condition in the mice similar to that found in people with asthma. The investigators hypothesized that exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) plus ozone would cause a synergistic (or greater-than-additive) response in the mice.

Inhalation Toxicology of Urban Ambient Particulate Matter: Acute Cardiovascular Effects in Rats

Renaud Vincent
Premkumari Kumarathasan
Patrick Goegan
Stephen G Bjarnason
Josée Guénette
Denis Bérubé
Ian Y Adamson
Suzanne Desjardins
Richard T Burnett
Frederick J Miller
Bruno Battistini
October 2001
Research Report 104

Dr. Renaud Vincent and his colleagues of Health Canada, Ottawa, hypothesized that ambient PM would cause changes in certain cardiovascular parameters. The investigators implanted rats with radiotransmitters to collect continuous data and indwelling catheters for repeated blood sampling. The animals were exposed to clean air or one of four types of resuspended particles: ambient particles (Ottawa dust), ambient particles that had been washed in water to remove soluble components, diesel soot, or carbon black.

Acute Pulmonary Effects of Ultrafine Particles in Rats and Mice

Günter Oberdörster
Jacob N Finkelstein
Carl Johnston
Robert Gelein
Christopher Cox
Raymond Baggs
Alison CP Elder
August 2001
Research Report 96

Dr Günter Oberdörster and colleagues at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry hypothesized that inhaled ultrafine particles induce an inflammatory response in the airways of mice and rats and that animals with preexisting airway inflammatory conditions may be particularly vulnerable. The investigators focused on inhaled carbon and platinum particles because these elements are constituents of particles found in urban atmospheres.

Evaluation of Human Health Risk from Cerium Added to Diesel Fuel

Health Effects Institute
August 2001
Communication 9

The fuel efficiency and durability of diesel technology are particularly desirable in the transportation and construction industries. Concerns about the health effects of diesel particulate emissions have led to progressively stricter emission standards, which can be met only through new technologic advances and fuel modifications. The cerium-based fuel additive Eolys, used in conjunction with a particulate filter, is one of the approaches being considered. However, this additive will result in emissions of cerium compounds and an increase in cerium in the ambient air and soil.

Characterization and Mechanisms of Chromosomal Alterations Induced by Benzene in Mice and Humans

David A Eastmond
Maik Schuler
Chris Frantz
Hongwei Chen
Robert Parks
Ling Wang
Leslie Hasegawa
June 2001
Research Report 103

Dr. Eastmond and colleagures at the University of California, Riverside investigated whether chromosomal changes could be used as biomarkers of benzene exposure in mice and humans. The first part of the study involved detecting chromosomal alterations in cells using a modification of a molecular cytogenetic technique known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Eastmond and colleagues evaluated the frequency of such chromosomal aberrations in the erythrocytes (red blood cells) from the bone marrow of mice exposed to various doses of benzene and for different exposure durations.

Airborne Particles and Health: HEI Epidemiologic Evidence

Health Effects Institute
June 2001
Perspectives 1

Perspectives 1 is the first of a series produced by the HEI Health Review Committee to integrate findings across several HEI studies or entire research programs. The intent is to describe and interpret results bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience in terested in environmental health.

Metabolism of Ether Oxygenates Added to Gasoline

Jun-Yan Hong
et al.
Wolfgang Dekant
et al.
Janet Benson
et al.
May 2001
Research Report 102

The three research projects contained in this report were initiated to increase our knowledge of the metabolism of ether oxygenates in humans and other species. Adding oxygenates, such as MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), to gasoline promotes more efficient combustion and reduces emission of carbon monoxide, ozone-forming hydrocarbons, and some air toxics, by increasing the oxygen content of the fuel. On the other hand, some oxygenates may increase emission of toxic compounds such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde, and increased use of MTBE in fuel in the early 1990s led to complaints of unpleasant odor, headaches, and burning of eyes and throat. The studies were conducted by Dr Jun-Yan Hong (the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey – Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Dr Wolfgang Dekant (University of Würzburg), and Dr Janet Benson (Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute).

Respiratory Epithelial Penetration and Clearance of Particle-Borne Benzo[a]pyrene

Per Gerde
Bruce A Muggenburg
Margot Lundborg
Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Alan R Dahl
April 2001
Research Report 101

Dr. Gerde and colleagues at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute examined the effects of organic compounds in diesel exhaust such as genotoxic polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAHs). The investigators removed most of the organic compounds from diesel exhaust particles and bound radioactive Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a type of PAH is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals, to them. They exposed the lower respiratory tract of three dogs to the particles and measured the levels of particle-bound BaP and free BaP released from particles in the peripheral region of the lungs.

Respiratory Tract Toxicity in Rats Exposed to Mexico City Air

Owen R Moss
Elizabeth A Gross
R Arden James
Derek B Janszen
Paul W Ross
Kay C Roberts
Andrew M Howard
Jack R Harkema
Lilian Calderon-Garciduenas
Kevin T Morgan
March 2001
Research Report 100

Dr. Moss of CIIT evaluated the effects of rats exposed to ambient air in a highly polluted area in southwestern Mexico City. Pathologists have found evidence of cell damage and inflammation in nasal tissue from some human residents of this highly polluted area that was not present in people living in areas of the country with cleaner air and this study sought to determine if those effects could be replicated in rats.

A Case-Crossover Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Harvey Checkoway
Drew Levy
Lianne Sheppard
Joel D Kaufman
Jane Koenig
David Siscovick
December 2000
Research Report 99

Dr Checkoway and colleagues at the University of Washington tested the primary hypothesis that increases in daily fine particle levels were related to increased risk of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. Sudden cardiac arrest and questionnaire data, and exposure data were obtained from the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency (Seattle WA). The investigators used a case-crossover study design; for each case of sudden cardiac arrest, a time period when the person was disease free was selected as a matched "referent" period.

Health Implications of Technological Responses to Climate Change

The Heinz Center
Health Effects Institute
November 2000
Workshop Report

Report of a workshop held November 29-30, 2000, sponsored by The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, and the Health Effects Institute. 

Daily Mortality and Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Erfurt, Germany. Part I: Role of Particle Number and Particle Mass

H-Erich Wichmann
Claudia Spix
Thomas Tuch
Gabriele Wölke
Annette Peters
Joachim Heinrich
Wolfgang Kreyling
Joachim Heyder
November 2000
Research Report 98

Dr H-Erich Wichmann and colleagues at the National Research Center for Environment and Health in Germany prospectively studied the association of daily mortality data with the number and mass concentrations of ultrafine and fine particles in Erfurt, Germany. Concentrations were measured near a road and a time-series approach was used to look at short-term changes in particle concentration and concurrent deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes over a period of 3.5 years.

Identifying Subgroups of the General Population That May Be Susceptible to Short-Term Increases in Particulate Air Pollution: A Time-Series Study in Montreal, Quebec

Mark S Goldberg
John C Bailar III
Richard T Burnett
Jeffrey R Brook
Robyn Tamblyn
Yvette Bonvalot
Pierre Ernst
Kenneth M Flegel
Ravinder K Singh
Marie-France Valois
October 2000
Research Report 97

Dr. Mark Goldberg and his colleagues at McGill University conducted a time-series study in Montreal using available data from the Quebec Health Insurance Plan and mortality and air pollution data to better the understanding of the mortality-particulate association. Because of the comprehensive nature of this health insurance database, the investigators were able to link individual deaths in Montreal to medical information up to 5 years before death.

Association of Particulate Matter Components with Daily Mortality and Morbidity in Urban Populations

Morton Lippmann
Kazuhiko Ito
Arthur Nádas
Richard T Burnett
August 2000
Research Report 95

Dr Morton Lippmann and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine attempted to identify and characterize components of PM and other air pollution mixtures that were associated with excess daily deaths and elderly hospital admissions in and around the area of Detroit, Michigan. Using publicly available data from 1985-1990 and 1992-1994, the investigators used statistical models to weigh the strength of one pollutant or two pollutants concurrently.

Reanalysis of the Harvard Six Cities Study and the American Cancer Society Study of Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality

Health Effects Institute
July 2000
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project. The overall objective of this project was to conduct a rigorous and independent assessment of the findings of the Harvard Six Cities and American Cancer Society Studies of air pollution and mortality. This objective was met in two parts. In Part I: Replication and Validation, the Reanalysis Team led by Dr. Daniel Krewski sought to replicate the original studies via a quality assurance audit of a sample of the original data and to validate the original numeric results.

National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part II: Morbidity and Mortality from Air Pollution in the United States

Jonathan M Samet
Scott L Zeger
Francesca Dominici
Frank Curriero
Ivan Coursac
Douglas W Dockery
Joel Schwartz
Antonella Zanobetti
June 2000
Research Report 94-II

The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) was designed to select multiple locations based on the specific criteria of population size and availability of PM10 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) database, and to apply the same statistical procedures to all locations. Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues Johns Hopkins University conducted a time-series study of mortality effects in large US cities representing various levels of PM10 and gaseous pollutants.

National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part I: Methods and Methodologic Issues

Jonathan M Samet
Francesca Dominici
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Douglas W Dockery
June 2000
Research Report 94-I

In an effort to address the uncertainties regarding the association between PM and daily mortality, and to determine the effects of other pollutants on this association, HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS). Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University, in collaboration with investigators at Harvard University, conducted this time-series study in large cities across the US where levels of PM and gaseous pollutants were varied.

Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles in Rats and Hamsters: An Exploratory Study

Terry Gordon
Christine Nadziejko
Lung Chi Chen
Richard B Schlesinger
April 2000
Research Report 93

Dr Terry Gordon and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of exposure to PM derived from New York City air on the rodent cardiopulmonary system. They hypothesized that PM would have greater, possibly fatal, effects in animals with compromised cardiopulmonary function than in normal animals. Gordon and colleagues exposed animals for up to 6 hours to concentrated particles that ranged from approximately 150 to 900 µg/m3.

1,3 Butadiene: Cancer, Mutations, and Adducts

Rogene F Henderson
Leslie Recio
Vernon E Walker
Ian A Blair
James A Swenberg
March 2000
Research Report 92

As part of the Health Effects Institute's air toxics research program, five independent studies were designed to advance our understanding of the roles of different metabolites in 1,3-butadiene (BD)-induced carcinogenesis and of the differences in sensitivity among species, and to develop methods for identifying and measuring biomarkers. The investigators focused on two BD metabolites (1,2-epoxy-3-butene [BDO] and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane [BDO2]) that researchers had suspected may play a role in BD carcinogenesis. The studies were conducted by Dr. Rogene Henderson (Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute), Dr. Leslie Recio (CIIT), Dr. Vernon Walker (New York State Department of Health), Dr. Ian Blair (University of Pennsylvania), and Dr. James Swenberg (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).

Mechanisms of Morbidity and Mortality from Exposure to Ambient Air Particles

John J Godleski
Richard L Verrier
Petros Koutrakis
Paul J Catalano
February 2000
Research Report 91

Dr John Godleski and colleagues at Harvard School of Public Health conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of particulate matter exposure in dogs, which share many features of the human cardiovascular system. The investigators hypothesized that particulate matter might affect the animals' cardiac function, leading to arrhythmia, and might induce inflammatory responses and changes in pulmonary mechanical measurements. Twelve dogs were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) that were 30 times their level in ambient Boston air.

Aldehydes (Nonanal and Hexanal) in Rat and Human Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid After Ozone Exposure

Mark W Frampton
William A Pryor
Rafael Cueto
Christopher Cox
Paul E Morrow
Mark J Utell
November 1999
Research Report 90

Dr. Pryor and colleagues at Louisiana State University developed methods for measuring ozone reaction products in in vitro models of lung lining fluids exposed to ozone and in lung fluids from rats exposed to ozone. During the study, Dr. Mark Frampton of the University of Rochester provided Pryor with lung fluids from humans exposed to air or ozone under controlled conditions. Frampton and colleagues exposed exercising smokers and nonsmokers to filtered air or to 0.22 parts per million (ppm) ozone for four hours.

Diesel Workshop: Building a Research Strategy to Improve Risk Assessment

Health Effects Institute
October 1999
Communication 7
Communication 7 contains proceedings from a workshop held in Stone Mountain, GA, March 7–9 1999. The following topics were discussed: Risk Assessments of Diesel Emissions: Framework for Building a Research Strategy; Chemical and Physical Properties of Diesel Engine Emissions; Assessment of Exposure to Diesel Engine Emissions; What Do Published Epidemiology Studies Tell Us About Exposure-Response?; What Will Epidemiology Studies Now Underway Tell Us About Exposure-Response?; What Will Epidemiology Studies Now Underway Tell Us About Exposure-Response?; and Consideration of Health Endpoints Other Than Cancer in Future Risk Assessments of Diesel Emissions.

The Health Effects of Fine Particles: Key Questions and the 2003 Review

Health Effects Institute
October 1999
Communication 8
Report of the Joint Meeting of the EC and HEI, held in Brussels, Belgium, January 14–15 1999. The following topics were discussed: What Are People Exposed To and Where Do Particles Come From? What Is Known About the Health Effects of PM? What New Research Results Are Emerging? and Outstanding Questions and Gaps for 2003 and Beyond.

Reproductive and Offspring Developmental Effects Following Maternal Inhalation Exposure to Methanol in Nonhuman Primates

Thomas Burbacher
October 1999
Research Report 89

In an effort to improve air quality and decrease dependence on petroleum, alternative fuels such as methanol have been considered to substitute for gasoline or diesel fuel. Methanol is also a candidate to provide the hydrogen for fuel cells. Before people are exposed to increased concentrations of methanol, the potential health effects of such exposures require study. Dr. Burbacher and colleagues of the University of Washington studied the effects of long-term exposure to methanol vapors on metabolism and reproduction in adult female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and developmental effects in their offspring, who were exposed prenatally to methanol. 

Morphometric Analysis of Alveolar Responses of F344 Rats to Subchronic Inhalation of Nitric Oxide

Robert R Mercer
September 1999
Research Report 88

In a follow-up study to previous research, Dr. Mercer and colleagues at Duke University exposed three groups of rats continuously for six weeks to 2 or 6 ppm nitric oxide (NO) or to filtered air to learn more about the toxicity of NO so as to compare it with two other important oxidants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). At the end of the exposure period he used an electron microscope to measure the number of holes in the alveolar septa and to observe other structural changes, such as in the surface area and the number and type of other abnormalities in the alveolar septa.

Development of Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Methods for Determination of Urinary Metabolites of Benzene in Humans

Assieh A Melikian
Min Meng
Ray O’Connor
Peifeng Hu
Seth M Thompson
June 1999
Research Report 87

Dr. Melikian and colleagues at the American Health Foundation developed and validated a novel, practical method for assaying metabolites of benzene in humans methods using a technique known as Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to measure benzene metabolites in human urine.

Diesel Emissions and Lung Cancer: Epidemiology and Quantitative Risk Assessment

Health Effects Institute
June 1999
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Epidemiology Expert Panel. Although epidemiologic data have been used generally to identify the hazards associated with exposure to diesel exhaust, questions remain as to whether the human data can be used to develop reliable estimates of the magnitude of any risk for lung cancer (that is, through quantitative risk assessment [QRA]), and whether new research efforts could provide any additional data needed. In response to such issues, the Health Effects Institute initiated the Diesel Epidemiology Project in 1998.

Statistical Methods for Epidemiologic Studies of the Health Effects of Air Pollution

William Navidi
Duncan Thomas
Bryan Langholz
Daniel Stram
May 1999
Research Report 86

Dr. Navidi and colleagues at the University of Southern California discussed the development of three sophisticated statistical methods that would improve the estimates of the health effects of air pollution obtained from epidemiologic studies. First, they took a standard case-crossover design and introduced a bidirectional element where control data were obtained both before and after the health event of interest.

Mechanisms of Response to Ozone Exposure: The Role of Mast Cells in Mice

Steven R Kleeberger
Malinda Longphre
Clarke G Tankersley
April 1999
Research Report 85

Dr. Kleeberger and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University compared ozone-induced inflammation, epithelial cell injury, and epithelial cell proliferation (a marker of cell injury) in three types of mice: mice with a normal content of mast cells, mutant mice without mast cells, and mutant mice whose mast cells were repleted by a bone marrow transplant from normal mice. Each group of mice was exposed to clean air or to ozone for varying lengths of time.

Evaluation of The Potential Health Effects of the Atmospheric Reaction Products of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Andrew J Grosovsky
Jennifer C Sasaki
Janet Arey
David Eastmond
Karyn K Parks
Roger Atkinson
March 1999
Research Report 84

Dr. Arey and colleagues of the University of California, Riverside, examined the genotoxic potential of two PAHs (naphthalene and phenanthrene) that are common air pollutants, and a subset of their atmospheric transformation products. The investigators evaluated the genotoxicity of these compounds using a variety of human cell lines with a range of metabolic capabilities. They examined the ability of these compounds to produce small-scale (damage to genes) and large-scale (damage to chromosomes) genetic damage.

Daily Changes in Oxygen Saturation and Pulse Rate Associated with Particulate Air Pollution and Barometric Pressure

Douglas W Dockery
C Arden Pope III
Richard E Kanner
G Martin Villegas
Joel Schwartz
January 1998
Research Report 83

Drs. Douglas Dockery at the Harvard School of Public Health and C. Arden Pope III at Brigham Young University speculated that exposure to PM might lead to a transient drop in blood oxygenation, which might have serious consequences in humans with heart or lung problems. The investigators designed a study to increase the possibility of observing PM effects by testing a potentially at-risk group (the elderly) at a time of year that historically had experienced relatively high levels of PM (the winter).

A Partnership to Examine Emerging Health Effects: EC/HEI Workshop on 1,3-Butadiene

Health Effects Institute
January 1998
Communication 6
Communication 6 contains proceedings from a workshop held in Brussels, Belgium, June 29–30 1998. Presentations focused on butadiene ambient concentrations, metabolism, mutagenicity, epidemiology, and a panel discussion on Butadiene Risk Assessment in the Regulatory Framework.

Atmospheric Observations: Helping Build the Scientific Basis for Decisions Related to Airborne Particulate Matter

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
Health Effects Institute
July 1998
Workshop Report

Daniel L. Albritton and Daniel S. Greenbaum, cochairs. Report of the PM Measurements Research Workshop, Chapel Hill NC, July 22 and 23, 1998. Aeronomy Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO, and Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part XIII: A Comparison of Changes in the Tracheobronchial Epithelium and Pulmonary Acinus in Male Rats at 3 and 20 Months

Kent E Pinkerton
Barbara L Weller
Margaret G Ménache
Charles G Plopper
June 1998
Research Report 65-XIII

Ozone, a common outdoor air pollutant, is a highly reactive gas and a major component of smog. A public health concern is that prolonged exposure to ozone might damage the airways and contribute to the development of noncancerous respiratory diseases. To examine this issue, the Health Effects Institute collaborated with the NTP to provide HEI-funded investigators access to animals that underwent the same rigorously controlled ozone exposure and quality assurance processes along with the animals used for NTP studies. One of the NTP/HEI investigator groups, Dr.

Acute Effects of Ambient Ozone on Asthmatic, Wheezy, and Healthy Children

Edward L Avol
William Navidi
Edward B Rappaport
John M Peters
May 1998
Research Report 82

Dr. John Peters and colleagues of the University of Southern California School of Medicine compared the lung function, respiratory symptoms, activity levels, and bronchodilator use of 10- to 12-year-old healthy, asthmatic, and wheezy children. They conducted the study in Southern California during mid-spring (when ozone levels were expected to be low) and late summer (when ozone levels were expected to be high).