Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 101 - 125 of 289. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


Health Effects of Real-World Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Persons with Asthma

Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
James E McCreanor
Paul Cullinan
Kian Fan Chung
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
In-Kyu Han
Lars Järup
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
February 2009
Research Report 138

Research Report 138, Health Effects of Real-World Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Persons with Asthma, is one part of HEI's larger program on the role of particles in exacerbating asthma and other allergic diseases. This report describes a study to evaluate how inhaling air with a high concentration of diesel exhaust from vehicular traffic while walking on a busy street in Central London might affect people who had either mild or moderate asthma. Dr.

Uptake and Inflammatory Effects of Nanoparticles in a Human Vascular Endothelial Cell Line

Ian M Kennedy
Dennis Wilson
Abdul I Barakat
January 2009
Research Report 136

Research Report 136, Uptake and Inflammatory Effects of Nanoparticles in a Human Vascular Endothelial Cell Line, is one part of HEI's larger program on the health effects of particulate matter and its various components. This report describes a one-year study to evaluate which physicochemical characteristics of metal nanoparticles may contribute to their toxicity.

Mechanisms of Particulate Matter Toxicity in Neonatal and Young Adult Rat Lungs

Kent E Pinkerton
Yamei Zhou
Caiyun Zhong
Kevin R Smith
Stephen V Teague
Ian M Kennedy
Margaret G Ménache
October 2008
Research Report 135

Research Report 135 describes a study to determine whether the biologic response to inhaled ultrafine particles depends on particle composition. Neonatal and young adult rats were exposed to laboratory-generated ultrafine metal particles, either alone or in combination with soot, and their lungs examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury.

Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): Key Results from Bangkok, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan

Health Effects Institute
October 2008
Communication 13

The September issue of Environmental Health Perspectives published the first systematic presentation of the HEI-funded PAPA studies in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan, as well as a combined analysis and accompanying editorial. These articles have been reprinted and are currently available as HEI Communication 13. The detailed studies and accompanying HEI commentaries will be published by the Institute this spring.

Black-Pigmented Material in Airway Macrophages from Healthy Children: Association with Lung Function and Modeled PM10

Jonathan Grigg
Neeta Kulkarni
Nevil Pierse
Lesley Rushton
Christopher O'Callaghan
Andrew Rutman
June 2008
Research Report 134

Research Report 134 describes a study that evaluated whether there was an association between particles detectable in the airways of healthy children and a) estimates of local, traffic-derived PM10 at the children's home addresses or b) their lung function. Dr. Jonathan Grigg and colleagues recruited 116 healthy children aged 8 to 15 years who lived in Leicester, UK. In addition to modeling each child's exposure, the investigators measured lung function and evaluated induced sputum for particles in airway macrophages and markers of inflammation.

Mobile-Source Air Toxics: A Critical Review of the Literature on Exposure and Health Effects

Health Effects Institute
November 2007
Special Report 16

A Special Report of the Institute's Air Toxics Review Panel. Special Report 16 summarizes the health effects of exposure to the 21 mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) defined by the 2001 EPA mobile-source rulemaking and critically analyzes the literature for a subset of seven MSATs (acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, naphthalene, and polycyclic organic matter). The report also assesses and summarizes research gaps and unresolved questions, as understood in the context of the current regulatory agenda. The report focuses on MSATs for which mobile sources are a sizable source of human exposure and for which existing data suggest that health effects might be observed at concentrations approaching those found in ambient air. For each MSAT, the following questions are addressed: (1) To what extent are mobile sources a significant source of exposure to this MSAT? (2) Does this MSAT affect human health? (3) Does this MSAT affect human health at environmental conditions?

Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II. Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species

Barbara J Turpin
Clifford P Weisel
Maria T Morandi
Steven Colome
Thomas Stock
Steven Eisenreich
Brian Buckley
et al.
August 2007
Research Report 130-II

The RIOPA project comprised three studies, one funded by the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) and two funded by HEI, that investigated seasonal concentrations of 16 VOCs, 10 carbonyls, and PM2.5 in homes in Los Angeles CA, Houston TX, and Elizabeth NJ. The project was jointly funded and reviewed by a Special Review Panel of the two organizations. It generated a rich database on concentrations of air toxics and PM2.5 in the personal breathing zone of 100 adults in each city as well as inside and outside their homes.

Internet-Based Health and Air Pollution Surveillance System

Scott L Zeger
Aidan McDermott
Francesca Dominici
Roger D Peng
Jonathan Samet
October 2006
Communication 12

HEI Communication 12 describes a project by Dr Scott Zeger and colleagues at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health that was funded by HEI to make data and software from the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) available to the wider research and policy communities. This Communication contains the Project Report, which describes the Internet-Based Health and Air Pollution Surveillance System (iHAPSS), along with Comments from some members of the HEI Health Research and Review Committees and other experts who had used the data.

An Updated Study of Mortality Among North American Synthetic Rubber Industry Workers

Elizabeth Delzell
Nalini Sathiakumar
John Graff
Maurizio Macaluso
George Maldonado
Robert Matthew
August 2006
Research Report 132

This study by Dr. Elizabeth Delzell and colleagues is the first major update of the most extensive human study to date of potential carcinogenic effects of 1,3-butadiene (BD). The earlier study investigated mortality among the largest occupational group exposed to BD: 18,000 men employed in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) industry between 1944 and 1991. In the current study, these workers were followed for an additional 7 years and the effects of exposure to other compounds were evaluated.

Characterization of Metals Emitted from Motor Vehicles

James J Schauer
Glynis C Lough
Martin M Shafer
William F Christensen
Michael F Arndt
Jeffrey T DeMinter
June-Soo Park
March 2006
Research Report 133

To answer important questions about possible sources of metal exposure from both tailpipe and non-tailpipe emissions, Dr. James Schauer and his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin - Madison collected and characterized metals in fine and coarse particles from a variety of sources, including tailpipe emissions, dust from brake and tire wear, and roadway dust.

Characterization of Particulate and Gas Exposures of Sensitive Subpopulations Living in Baltimore and Boston

Petros Koutrakis
Helen H Suh
Jeremy A Sarnat
Kathleen Ward Brown
Brent A Coull
Joel Schwartz
December 2005
Research Report 131

Dr. Koutrakis and his colleagues assessed the correlations between personal exposure to PM2.5 and gaseous copollutants and compare these measurements with those taken at central-site monitors. Three groups of possibly susceptible individuals (children, seniors, and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were recruited in two cities (Boston and Baltimore) in two seasons (summer and winter).

Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection Methods and Descriptive Analyses

Clifford P Weisel
Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Barbara J Turpin
Maria T Morandi
Steven Colome
Thomas H Stock
Dalia M Spektor
et al.
November 2005
Research Report 130-I

The RIOPA project comprised three studies, one funded by the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) and two funded by HEI, that investigated seasonal concentrations of 16 VOCs, 10 carbonyls, and PM2.5 in homes in Los Angeles CA, Houston TX, and Elizabeth NJ. The project was jointly funded and reviewed by a Special Review Panel of the two organizations. It generated a rich database on concentrations of air toxics and PM2.5 in the personal breathing zone of 100 adults in each city as well as inside and outside their homes.

National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part IV: Hierarchical Bivariate Time-Series Models—A Combined Analysis of PM10 Effects on Hospitalization and Mortality

Francesca Dominici
Antonella Zanobetti
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Jonathan M Samet
September 2005
Research Report 094-IV

In Part IV of the Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), Dr Francesca Dominici and colleagues at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health addressed an important question resulting from the combined analysis of air pollution effects on mortality and on hospital admissions. Is the underlying true effect per unit PM10 on mortality (the mortality slope) of the same magnitude as the effect per unit PM10 on hospitalizations (the hospitalization slope) in a given city?

Particle Size and Composition Related to Adverse Health Effects in Aged, Sensitive Rats

Fletcher F Hahn
Edward Barr
Margaret G Ménache
JeanClare Seagrave
September 2005
Research Report 129

Dr. Hahn and colleagues systematically examined lung inflammation in young adult and old rats after inhalation of fine particles (< 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and ultrafine particles (< 0.1 µm in aerodynamic diameter) of different composition: relatively inert carbon and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), which contains the transition metal vanadium, known to cause toxic effects upon inhalation in humans in occupational settings. In addition, they examined the effect of a short-term increase (spike) in particle exposure concentration on inflammatory response.

Particulate Air Pollution and Nonfatal Cardiac Events

Annette Peters
et al.
Douglas W Dockery
et al.
June 2005
Research Report 124

This report contains two studies, by Drs. Annette Peters and Douglas Dockery. Dr. Peters and her colleagues evaluated the association between nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and exposure to particulate matter just prior to the event. She asked 691 patients in hospitals in Augsburg, Germany who survived an MI to provide hourly details about their activities 4 days before MI onset. The investigators used a case-crossover analysis to determine whether exposure to pollutants was associated with onset of MI. Dr. Dockery and colleagues assessed the correlation between short-term increases in ambient concentrations of particulate matter and the risk of possibly life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The investigators studied 195 patients from Boston, MA who had either single or dual-chamber ICD's and used logistic regression models to determine whether exposure to air pollutants was associated with arrhythmias.

Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Exposures to PM2.5 and Its Components for Groups of Cardiovascular Patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki

Bert Brunekreef
Nicole AH Janssen
Jeroen J de Hartog
Marieke Oldenwening
Kees Meliefste
Gerard Hoek
Timo Lanki
Kirsi L Timonen
Marko Vallius
Juha Pekkanen
Rene Van Grieken
January 2005
Research Report 127

Dr. Brunekreef and his colleagues assessed the correlation between personal, indoor, and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for elderly people with cardiovascular disease living in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Helsinki, Finland. Measurements were taken between November 1998 and June 1999 using fixed monitoring sites near the subjects' residences and inside their homes using the same type of monitor. Personal exposures were monitored with a different type of sampler that the subjects kept with them at all times.

Neurogenic Responses in Rat Lungs After Nose-Only Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

Mark L Witten
Simon S Wong
Nina N Sun
Ingegerd Keith
Chol-Bum Kweon
David E Foster
James J Schauer
Duane L Sherrill
January 2005
Research Report 128

Dr. Witten and colleagues investigated the inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust exposure on rat airways. The investigators focused on the role of neurogenic inflammation, an inflammatory response defined by the release of neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP), from sensory nerve fibers known as C fibers located within the lung tissue. Neurogenic inflammation has been implicated in responses to inhaled irritants such as ozone and cigarette smoke and has been implied to play a role in asthma.

Effects of Exposure to Ultrafine Carbon Particles in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Asthma

Mark W Frampton
Mark J Utell
Wojciech Zareba
Günter Oberdörster
Christopher Cox
Li-Shan Huang
Paul E Morrow
F Eun-Hyung Lee
David Chalupa
Lauren M Frasier
Donna M Speers
Judith Stewart
December 2004
Research Report 126

Dr. Frampton and his colleagues evaluated the effects of exposing healthy and mildly asthmatic men and women to laboratory-generated ultrafine carbon particles. They hypothesized that ultrafine particle exposure would activate leukocytes and endothelial cells and lead to an inflammatory response in the airway and in the blood; and that it also might affect respiration and cardiac electrophysiologic function. They further hypothesized that effects would be greater in people with asthma than in healthy people.

Time-Series Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality: A Statistical Review

Francesca Dominici
December 2004
Research Report 123

This report describes a study funded under the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award. Dr Francesca Dominici and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University developed more flexible methods and statistical models for the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study database.

Uptake Distribution of Ozone in Human Lungs: Intersubject Variability in Physiologic Response

James S Ultman
Abdellaziz Ben-Jebria
Steven F Arnold
November 2004
Research Report 125

Dr James Ultman and colleagues at Pennsylvania State University recruited 32 men and 28 women to examine differences in ozone uptake in the lung. The subjects (all non smokers) first took a series of single breaths of air–ozone mixtures, which allowed the investigators to examine how ozone was distributed in the airways and where the major fraction of ozone was taken up. In a follow-up test, the subjects pedaled a bicycle ergometer to produce conditions of moderate exercise for one hour while breathing clean air, followed by a third test while breathing ozone at 0.25 ppm).

Evaluation of a Personal and Microenvironmental Aerosol Speciation Sampler (PMASS)

Alison S Geyh
Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
November 2004
Research Report 122

Dr Alison S Geyh and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University evaluated the personal and microenvironmental aerosol speciation sampler (PMASS) prototype developed by Dr. Susanne Hering with HEI funding (HEI Research Report 114). The precision and accuracy of the prototype, which measures PM2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate, was evaluated in two locations with different PM composition. Baltimore, Maryland (outdoors), and Fresno, California (indoors). Geyh and colleagues set a target of 10% precision and 10% accuracy for all species measured.

Field Evaluation of Nanofilm Detectors for Measuring Acidic Particles in Indoor and Outdoor Air

Maire SA Heikkinen
Yair Hazi
Hai Gao
Paul Peters
Morton Lippmann
September 2004
Research Report 121

Dr. Beverly Cohen and her colleagues at New York University School of Medicine tested the performance of iron nanofilms to collect and measure sulfuric acid particles of different sizes under a variety of temperature and humidity conditions. The iron nanofilm detector is a thin iron-coated silicon chip. Particles would react with the iron, creating an elevated site or bump on the film surface, which can be visualized using an atomic force microscope.

Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles on Normal and Hypersecretory Airways in Rats

Jack R Harkema
Gerald Keeler
James Wagner
Masako Morishita
Edward Timm
Jon Hotchkiss
Frank Marsik
Timothy Dvonch
Norbert Kaminski
Edward Barr
August 2004
Research Report 120

Dr. Jack Harkema and colleagues at Michigan State University conducted a 2-year study with rats to evaluate the short-term effects of inhaling concentrated ambient particles derived from the air in an area of Detroit, Michigan that has a high incidence of childhood asthma. The investigators used two animal models, BN rats that were sensitized with ovalbumin to induce some features of asthma, and F344 rats pretreated with endotoxin to have some features of mild bronchitis. Animals were exposed for 10 hours/day for 1 day or for 4 or 5 consecutive days.

National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part III: Concentration–Response Curves and Thresholds for the 20 Largest US Cities

Michael J Daniels
Francesca Dominici
Scott L Zeger
Jonathan M Samet
May 2004
Research Report 094-III

In Part III of the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), Dr. Daniels and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University and Harvard University evaluated the shape of the relation between PM10 concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites and daily mortality among residents from all causes (excluding accidental causes), from all cardiovascular and respiratory causes combined, and from causes other than cardiovascular-respiratory disease.

Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries of Asia: A Literature Review

Health Effects Institute
April 2004
Special Report 15

A Special Report by the HEI International Scientific Oversight Committee of HEI Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Program (a program of the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities). This first publication to come from HEI's PAPA Program was undertaken to help inform the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities. This special report has identified and summarized more than 135 studies of air pollution and health conducted across Asia. In addition, it critically reviews for the first time a key subset of these studies: 28 studies of daily mortality. The report is a valuable resource for policy makers in Asia and beyond.