Particulate Matter

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Research Report 94-I
Jonathan M Samet
Francesca Dominici
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Douglas W Dockery
June 2000

In an effort to address the uncertainties regarding the association between PM and daily mortality, and to determine the effects of other pollutants on this association, HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS). Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University, in collaboration with investigators at Harvard University, conducted this time-series study in large cities across the US where levels of PM and gaseous pollutants were varied.

Research Report 93
Terry Gordon
Christine Nadziejko
Lung Chi Chen
Richard B Schlesinger
April 2000

Dr Terry Gordon and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of exposure to PM derived from New York City air on the rodent cardiopulmonary system. They hypothesized that PM would have greater, possibly fatal, effects in animals with compromised cardiopulmonary function than in normal animals. Gordon and colleagues exposed animals for up to 6 hours to concentrated particles that ranged from approximately 150 to 900 µg/m3.

Research Report 91
John J Godleski
Richard L Verrier
Petros Koutrakis
Paul J Catalano
February 2000

Dr John Godleski and colleagues at Harvard School of Public Health conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of particulate matter exposure in dogs, which share many features of the human cardiovascular system. The investigators hypothesized that particulate matter might affect the animals' cardiac function, leading to arrhythmia, and might induce inflammatory responses and changes in pulmonary mechanical measurements. Twelve dogs were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) that were 30 times their level in ambient Boston air.

Communication 8
Health Effects Institute
October 1999
Report of the Joint Meeting of the EC and HEI, held in Brussels, Belgium, January 14–15 1999. The following topics were discussed: What Are People Exposed To and Where Do Particles Come From? What Is Known About the Health Effects of PM? What New Research Results Are Emerging? and Outstanding Questions and Gaps for 2003 and Beyond.
Research Report 83
Douglas W Dockery
C Arden Pope III
Richard E Kanner
G Martin Villegas
Joel Schwartz
January 1998

Drs. Douglas Dockery at the Harvard School of Public Health and C. Arden Pope III at Brigham Young University speculated that exposure to PM might lead to a transient drop in blood oxygenation, which might have serious consequences in humans with heart or lung problems. The investigators designed a study to increase the possibility of observing PM effects by testing a potentially at-risk group (the elderly) at a time of year that historically had experienced relatively high levels of PM (the winter).

Workshop Report
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
Health Effects Institute
July 1998

Daniel L. Albritton and Daniel S. Greenbaum, cochairs. Report of the PM Measurements Research Workshop, Chapel Hill NC, July 22 and 23, 1998. Aeronomy Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO, and Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA.

Communication 5
Health Effects Institute
September 1997

Communication 5 contains proceedings of a workshop held in Cambridge, MA, December 3–4 1996. Presentations included: Current Understanding of the Health Effects of Particles and the Characteristics That Determine Dose or Effect; Particle Formation in Combustion; The EPA Particle Emissions Testing Procedure; Characterizing Particulate Matter in Motor Vehicle Exhaust; Atmospheric Aerosol Transformation; Generating Particles for Laboratory Studies; and Issues and Research Needs for Particle Characterization.

Special Report
Health Effects Institute
March 1997

The Phase I.B Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.B, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) compared approaches for controlling the effects of weather variables when analyzing the connection between air pollution and daily mortality, primarily focusing on Synoptic Weather Categories, an approach newly proposed by Dr. Laurence S. Kalkstein of the University of Delaware; and (2) evaluated the association between particulate air pollution and daily mortality in the Philadelphia metropolitan area using statistical models that included data for five pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (referred to as criteria pollutants).

Special Report
Health Effects Institute
August 1995

The Phase I.A Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.A, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) reconstructed from original sources the data set for Philadelphia used in earlier studies and confirmed previous numerical results from analyzing these data; (2) developed an analytic approach (including new statistical methods) based on the Philadelphia data set; and (3) applied this approach to data sets for six locations: Philadelphia; Utah Valley; St. Louis, MO; Eastern Tennessee; Birmingham, AL; and Santa Clara County, CA.

Research Report 68-I
Joe L Mauderly
M Burton Snipes
Edward Barr
Steven A Belinsky
James A Bond
Antone L Brooks
I-Yiin Chang
Yung S Cheng
Nancy A Gillett
William C Griffith
Rogene F Henderson
Charles E Mitchell
Kristen J Nikula
October 1994

Dr. Mauderly and coworkers exposed F344/N rats to clean air or to one of two levels (2.5 or 6.5 mg of particles/m3 of diesel exhaust or air) of either emissions from a light-duty diesel engine or carbon black particles. The exposures lasted for 16 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 24 months. The carbon black particles were similar to the soot particles in the diesel engine exhaust; however, they contained markedly lower amounts of adsorbed organic compounds.