Particulate Matter

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Research Report 97
Mark S Goldberg
John C Bailar III
Richard T Burnett
Jeffrey R Brook
Robyn Tamblyn
Yvette Bonvalot
Pierre Ernst
Kenneth M Flegel
Ravinder K Singh
Marie-France Valois
October 2000

Dr. Mark Goldberg and his colleagues at McGill University conducted a time-series study in Montreal using available data from the Quebec Health Insurance Plan and mortality and air pollution data to better the understanding of the mortality-particulate association. Because of the comprehensive nature of this health insurance database, the investigators were able to link individual deaths in Montreal to medical information up to 5 years before death.

Research Report 95
Morton Lippmann
Kazuhiko Ito
Arthur Nádas
Richard T Burnett
August 2000

Dr Morton Lippmann and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine attempted to identify and characterize components of PM and other air pollution mixtures that were associated with excess daily deaths and elderly hospital admissions in and around the area of Detroit, Michigan. Using publicly available data from 1985-1990 and 1992-1994, the investigators used statistical models to weigh the strength of one pollutant or two pollutants concurrently.

Special Report
Health Effects Institute
July 2000

A Special Report of the Institute's Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project. The overall objective of this project was to conduct a rigorous and independent assessment of the findings of the Harvard Six Cities and American Cancer Society Studies of air pollution and mortality. This objective was met in two parts. In Part I: Replication and Validation, the Reanalysis Team led by Dr. Daniel Krewski sought to replicate the original studies via a quality assurance audit of a sample of the original data and to validate the original numeric results.

Research Report 94-II
Jonathan M Samet
Scott L Zeger
Francesca Dominici
Frank Curriero
Ivan Coursac
Douglas W Dockery
Joel Schwartz
Antonella Zanobetti
June 2000

The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) was designed to select multiple locations based on the specific criteria of population size and availability of PM10 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) database, and to apply the same statistical procedures to all locations. Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues Johns Hopkins University conducted a time-series study of mortality effects in large US cities representing various levels of PM10 and gaseous pollutants.

Research Report 94-I
Jonathan M Samet
Francesca Dominici
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Douglas W Dockery
June 2000

In an effort to address the uncertainties regarding the association between PM and daily mortality, and to determine the effects of other pollutants on this association, HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS). Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University, in collaboration with investigators at Harvard University, conducted this time-series study in large cities across the US where levels of PM and gaseous pollutants were varied.

Research Report 93
Terry Gordon
Christine Nadziejko
Lung Chi Chen
Richard B Schlesinger
April 2000

Dr Terry Gordon and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of exposure to PM derived from New York City air on the rodent cardiopulmonary system. They hypothesized that PM would have greater, possibly fatal, effects in animals with compromised cardiopulmonary function than in normal animals. Gordon and colleagues exposed animals for up to 6 hours to concentrated particles that ranged from approximately 150 to 900 µg/m3.

Research Report 91
John J Godleski
Richard L Verrier
Petros Koutrakis
Paul J Catalano
February 2000

Dr John Godleski and colleagues at Harvard School of Public Health conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of particulate matter exposure in dogs, which share many features of the human cardiovascular system. The investigators hypothesized that particulate matter might affect the animals' cardiac function, leading to arrhythmia, and might induce inflammatory responses and changes in pulmonary mechanical measurements. Twelve dogs were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) that were 30 times their level in ambient Boston air.

Communication 8
Health Effects Institute
October 1999
Report of the Joint Meeting of the EC and HEI, held in Brussels, Belgium, January 14–15 1999. The following topics were discussed: What Are People Exposed To and Where Do Particles Come From? What Is Known About the Health Effects of PM? What New Research Results Are Emerging? and Outstanding Questions and Gaps for 2003 and Beyond.
Research Report 83
Douglas W Dockery
C Arden Pope III
Richard E Kanner
G Martin Villegas
Joel Schwartz
January 1998

Drs. Douglas Dockery at the Harvard School of Public Health and C. Arden Pope III at Brigham Young University speculated that exposure to PM might lead to a transient drop in blood oxygenation, which might have serious consequences in humans with heart or lung problems. The investigators designed a study to increase the possibility of observing PM effects by testing a potentially at-risk group (the elderly) at a time of year that historically had experienced relatively high levels of PM (the winter).

Workshop Report
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
Health Effects Institute
July 1998

Daniel L. Albritton and Daniel S. Greenbaum, cochairs. Report of the PM Measurements Research Workshop, Chapel Hill NC, July 22 and 23, 1998. Aeronomy Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO, and Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA.