Nitrogen Oxides

This page has a list of publications and news articles related to Air Pollution - Nitrogen Oxides. Find more information about our research on Air Pollution.

Research Report 28
Jonathan M Samet
John Spengler
September 1989

This report describes two pilot investigations for a longitudinal study of infants designed to determine if NO2 exposure from cooking stoves increases the incidence or severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. In the first study, Drs. Samet and Spengler selected 147 households with electric or gas stoves and infants for home indoor monitoring of NO2 concentrations; the infants\' mothers completed a daily calendar-diary on respiratory symptoms and provided illness information every 2 weeks.

Research Report 29
John N Evans
David R Hemenway
Jason Kelley
September 1989

This report describes a study by Dr. Evans and colleagues to develop an early marker of lung injury that changes in response to exposure to NO2, which is an important component of mobile source emissions. Rats were exposed to NO2 in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 30 ppm for 6 hours per day for periods ranging from 2 days to 4 weeks. Urine and bronchoalveloar lavage samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of the lung injury markers hydroxylysin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and desmosine.

Research Report 26
Uwe Heinrich
Ulrich Mohr
Rainer Fuhst
Carsten Brockmeyer
May 1989

This report describes a study by Dr. Heinrich and colleagues to investigate the effects of exposure to NO2 and SO2 or diesel engine exhaust on tumor formation in hamsters. Hamsters were exposed for 6, 10.5, 15, or 18 months to whole diesel exhaust, diesel exhaust without particles, or a mixture of NO2 and SO2. Additional groups of animals exposed to each test atmosphere were also injected with 3 or 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine/kg body weight to evaluate any enhancing effect of diethylnitrosamine on exposure-related changes.

Research Report 24
Richard M Rose
Paula Pinkston
William A Skornik
March 1989

This report examined the effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on the sensitivity of the lower respiratory tract to viral infection and reinfection. Dr. Rose and colleagues exposed mice to concentrations of nitrogen dioxide ranging from 1-10 ppm or to air prior to and after inoculation with varying doses of murine cytomegalovirus. A subset of mice was reinfected 30 days later. Infection status, macrophage phagocytic uptake, lymphocyte function, and virus-specific antibody levels were measured, and the results were compared by exposure condition.

Research Report 23
Paul E Morrow
Mark J Utell
February 1989

This report investigated changes in pulmonary function, as well as the occurrence of symptoms, in potentially susceptible human subpopulations exposed to nitrogen dioxide. Drs. Morrow and Utell exposed healthy individuals and individuals with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory infection to air or 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide. The exposure period (four hours per day for five consecutive days) included defined periods of moderate exercise and pulmonary function measurements including spirometry, airway conductance, airway reactivity, and symptoms.

Research Report 20
George J Jakab
November 1988

This report investigated the influence of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide on susceptibility to and severity of viral and bacterial infection in mice. Dr. Jakab exposed normal and immunosuppressed mice to concentrations of nitrogen dioxide ranging from 1 to 30 ppm before or after bacterial or viral challenge and measured host resistance to infection by physiologic parameters.

Research Report 18
Michael Jacobsen
Tom A Smith
J Fintan Hurley
Alastair Robertson
Ralph Roscrow
July 1988

This report investigated the association of occupational exposure to nitrogen oxides with respiratory infections in British coal miners. Dr. Jacobsen and colleagues leveraged data from the Pneumoconiosis Field Research Study, a long-term epidemiological study of British coal miners with information for the years 1953-1978.

Research Report 15
Thomas J Kulle
Mary Lou Clements
January 1987

This report addressed the hypothesis that exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances susceptibility to viral infection. Drs. Kulle and Clements exposed healthy human volunteers who were seronegative to cold-adapted influenza A virus to clean air or nitrogen dioxide concentrations of 1, 2, or 3 ppm for two hours a day for three consecutive days. Live influenza A virus was administered intranasally to all participants after the second day of exposure.

Research Report 14
Jane Koenig
William E Pierson
Susan Gayle Marshall
David S Covert
Michael S Morgan
Gerald van Belle
January 1987

This report investigated whether asthmatic and healthy adolescents differ in their sensitivity to near-ambient concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Dr. Koenig and colleagues exposed healthy and asthmatic participants to concentrations of 0.12 and 0.18 ppm ozone or 0.12 and 0.18 ppm nitrogen dioxide during rest or rest followed by moderate exercise.

Research Report 13
Edward D Crandall
Jeffrey M Cheek
Marian E Shaw
Edward M Postlethwait
October 1987

This report describes a study by Dr. Crandall and colleagues to investigate the ability of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to adversely alter the barrier and transport properties of mammalian alveolar epithelium and cause pulmonary edema. Rat type II alveolar cell monolayers cultured on non-porous and porous surfaces were used as models of isolated alveolar epithelium for in vitro exposure to NO2.