Nitrogen Oxides

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Research Report 24
Richard M Rose
Paula Pinkston
William A Skornik
March 1989

This report examined the effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on the sensitivity of the lower respiratory tract to viral infection and reinfection. Dr. Rose and colleagues exposed mice to concentrations of nitrogen dioxide ranging from 1-10 ppm or to air prior to and after inoculation with varying doses of murine cytomegalovirus. A subset of mice was reinfected 30 days later. Infection status, macrophage phagocytic uptake, lymphocyte function, and virus-specific antibody levels were measured, and the results were compared by exposure condition.

Research Report 23
Paul E Morrow
Mark J Utell
February 1989

This report investigated changes in pulmonary function, as well as the occurrence of symptoms, in potentially susceptible human subpopulations exposed to nitrogen dioxide. Drs. Morrow and Utell exposed healthy individuals and individuals with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory infection to air or 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide. The exposure period (four hours per day for five consecutive days) included defined periods of moderate exercise and pulmonary function measurements including spirometry, airway conductance, airway reactivity, and symptoms.

Research Report 20
George J Jakab
November 1988

This report investigated the influence of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide on susceptibility to and severity of viral and bacterial infection in mice. Dr. Jakab exposed normal and immunosuppressed mice to concentrations of nitrogen dioxide ranging from 1 to 30 ppm before or after bacterial or viral challenge and measured host resistance to infection by physiologic parameters.

Research Report 18
Michael Jacobsen
Tom A Smith
J Fintan Hurley
Alastair Robertson
Ralph Roscrow
July 1988

This report investigated the association of occupational exposure to nitrogen oxides with respiratory infections in British coal miners. Dr. Jacobsen and colleagues leveraged data from the Pneumoconiosis Field Research Study, a long-term epidemiological study of British coal miners with information for the years 1953-1978.

Research Report 15
Thomas J Kulle
Mary Lou Clements
January 1987

This report addressed the hypothesis that exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances susceptibility to viral infection. Drs. Kulle and Clements exposed healthy human volunteers who were seronegative to cold-adapted influenza A virus to clean air or nitrogen dioxide concentrations of 1, 2, or 3 ppm for two hours a day for three consecutive days. Live influenza A virus was administered intranasally to all participants after the second day of exposure.

Research Report 14
Jane Koenig
William E Pierson
Susan Gayle Marshall
David S Covert
Michael S Morgan
Gerald van Belle
January 1987

This report investigated whether asthmatic and healthy adolescents differ in their sensitivity to near-ambient concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Dr. Koenig and colleagues exposed healthy and asthmatic participants to concentrations of 0.12 and 0.18 ppm ozone or 0.12 and 0.18 ppm nitrogen dioxide during rest or rest followed by moderate exercise.

Research Report 13
Edward D Crandall
Jeffrey M Cheek
Marian E Shaw
Edward M Postlethwait
October 1987

This report describes a study by Dr. Crandall and colleagues to investigate the ability of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to adversely alter the barrier and transport properties of mammalian alveolar epithelium and cause pulmonary edema. Rat type II alveolar cell monolayers cultured on non-porous and porous surfaces were used as models of isolated alveolar epithelium for in vitro exposure to NO2.

Research Report 11
David A Johnson
August 1987

Addressing the need for better assessment of human exposure to mobile source emissions, this report investigates proteinase inhibitor activity as a potential biomarker of oxidant exposure. In this study by Dr. Johnson, human participants were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for four hours on consecutive days and to concentrations ranging from 0.6-2 ppm nitrogen dioxide for three hours. Blood samples were obtained and the functional activity of the proteinase inhibitors, alpha-1-proteinase, and bronchial leukocyte proteinase was assessed.

Research Report 9
Jawaharlah M Patel
Edward R Block
June 1987

Nitrogen dioxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Since NO2 is a reactive free radical, one postulated mechanism on NO2 pulmonary injury involves peroxidation of membrane lipids. Dr. Patel and colleagues at the University of Florida evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of NO2 exposure by measuring metabolic function, biochemical and biophysical parameters. The porcine pulmonary artery and aortic endothelial cells in monoculture cells were exposed to 3 or 5ppm of NO2 or air for 3-24 hours.

Research Report 8
Joe L Mauderly
David E Bice
Robert L Carpenter
Nancy A Gillett
Rogene F Henderson
John A Pickrell
Ronald K Wolff
May 1987

Previous research has reported that the lung development of animals exposed to oxidant gases early in life might be impaired, or that developing lungs might be more susceptible than adult lungs to inhaled toxicants. Dr. Mauderly and colleagues at the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute examined the age-related differences in the physiological responses of rats to inhaled automotive emissions. The younger group was exposed during gestation and through the age of six months, while the older group was exposed between the age of six and twelve months.