Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

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Formation and Characterization of Particles: Report of the 1996 HEI Workshop

Health Effects Institute
September 1997
Communication 5

Communication 5 contains proceedings of a workshop held in Cambridge, MA, December 3–4 1996. Presentations included: Current Understanding of the Health Effects of Particles and the Characteristics That Determine Dose or Effect; Particle Formation in Combustion; The EPA Particle Emissions Testing Procedure; Characterizing Particulate Matter in Motor Vehicle Exhaust; Atmospheric Aerosol Transformation; Generating Particles for Laboratory Studies; and Issues and Research Needs for Particle Characterization.

Pharmacokinetics of Methanol and Formate in Female Cynomolgus Monkeys Exposed to Methanol Vapors

Michele A Medinsky
David C Dorman
James A Bond
Owen R Moss
Derek B Janszen
Jeffrey I Everitt
June 1997
Research Report 77

Dr. Medinsky and colleagues of the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology sought to determine how formate, a metabolite produced when methanol is broken down by the body, is formed and removed in monkeys after they have been exposed to methanol vapors. The investigators exposed female cynomolgus monkeys to environmentally relevant concentrations (10, 45, or 200 parts per million) of methanol vapors and to one high dose (900 ppm) for two hours.

Effects of Ozone on Normal and Potentially Sensitive Human Subjects

John R Balmes
Mark W Frampton
June 1997
Research Report 78

Dr. John Balmes and colleagues of the University of California, San Francisco, and Dr. Mark Frampton and associates of the University of Rochester characterized ozone-induced responses in two different study populations: normal and asthmatic men and women in the Balmes study (Part I), and male and female nonsmokers and smokers in the Frampton study (Part II). The investigators addressed three issues: (1) Is an individual's reactivity to inhaled methacholine related to changes in lung function after exposure to ozone? (2) What is the relation between ozone-induced airway inflammation and changes in lung function? and (3) Do the changes in lung function and markers of inflammation in response to ozone exposure differ between normal people and people with asthma?

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part XII: Atrophy of Bone in Nasal Turbinates

Jack R Harkema
Paul J Catalano
Jon Hotchkiss
April 1997
Research Report 65-XII

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The Health Effects Institute collaborated with the NTP to provide eight HEI-funded investigators access to animals that underwent the same rigorously controlled ozone inhalation protocol and quality assurance processes along with the NTP animals. HEI funded this follow-on study to allow Dr.

Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: The Phase I Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. Phase I.B: Analyses of the Effects of Weather and Multiple Air Pollutants

Health Effects Institute
March 1997
Special Report

The Phase I.B Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.B, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) compared approaches for controlling the effects of weather variables when analyzing the connection between air pollution and daily mortality, primarily focusing on Synoptic Weather Categories, an approach newly proposed by Dr. Laurence S. Kalkstein of the University of Delaware; and (2) evaluated the association between particulate air pollution and daily mortality in the Philadelphia metropolitan area using statistical models that included data for five pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (referred to as criteria pollutants).

Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Illness in Children. Part IV: Effects of Housing and Meteorologic Factors on Indoor Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations

John Spengler
Margo Schwab
Aidan McDermott
William E Lambert
Jonathan M Samet
December 1996
Research Report 58-IV

Nitrogen dioxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide are often higher than outdoor concentrations, especially in homes where there are unvented heating and cooking appliances that utilize natural gas, kerosene, coal, or wood. Drs. John Spengler, Jonathan Samet, and their colleagues determined the impact of housing characteristics and the type and use of cooking ranges on nitrogen dioxide levels in infants' bedrooms in Albuquerque.

Ozone Exposure and Daily Mortality in Mexico City: A Time-Series Analysis

Dana P Loomis
Víctor H Borja-Aburto
Shrikant I Bangdiwala
Carl M Shy
October 1996
Research Report 75

Dr. Loomis and colleagues at the University of North Carolina and Dr. Víctor Borja-Aburto of the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública in Cuernavaca, Mexico, collected mortality, air quality, and weather data from records and monitoring stations in Mexico City from 1990 through 1992. Using statistical techniques, the investigators evaluated the association between mortality and ambient levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and total suspended particles, both individually and in a model that included all three pollutants.

Characterization of Fuel and After-Treatment Device Effects on Diesel Emissions

Susan T Bagley
Kirby J Baumgard
Linda D Gratz
John H Johnson
David G Leddy
September 1996
Research Report 76

Dr. Susan Bagley and colleagues at Michigan Technological University conducted a laboratory study to characterize the physical and chemical composition, and the mutagenicity of emissions from a heavy-duty 1988 diesel engine equipped with a ceramic particle trap. This engine was operated with low-sulfur fuel at a constant speed under two different load conditions. They also studied the effects of an oxidation catalytic converter on emissions from a heavy-duty 1991 diesel engine using a low-sulfur fuel.

Maternal-Fetal Pharmacokinetics of Methanol

Gary M Pollack
Kim LR Brouwer
June 1996
Research Report 74

Drs. Pollack and Brouwer at the University of North Carolina determined the relationship between methanol exposure and its uptake into and elimination from the blood of nonpregnant and pregnant rodents. The investigators exposed rats and mice at several different stages of gestation to methanol intravenously or orally (doses ranged from 100 mg/kg of body weight to 2,500 mg/kg) or by inhalation (1,000 to 20,000 ppm for 8 hours). They measured blood, urine, and amniotic fluid concentrations of methanol and used the data to develop a model of methanol distribution in rodents.

Developmental Neurotoxicity of Methanol Exposure in Rats

Bernard Weiss
Sander Stern
Sidney C Soderholm
Christopher Cox
Archana Sharma
Geoffrey B Inglis
Ray Preston
Marlene Balys
Kenneth R Reuhl
Robert Gelein
April 1996
Research Report 73

Dr. Weiss and his colleagues at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry examined the effects of prenatal and early postnatal inhalation of methanol on selected measures of neurobehavior in rats. The investigators conducted a controlled series of experiments in which they exposed pregnant rats and their newborn offspring to 4,500 parts per million (ppm) methanol by inhalation, and then submitted them to tests of behavioral function.

The Potential Health Effects of Oxygenates Added to Gasoline. A Review of the Current Literature

Health Effects Institute
April 1996
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Oxygenates Evaluation Committee. Oxygenated fuel (usually referred to as oxyfuel) was formulated to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and contains at least 2.7% oxygen by adding methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol. Reformulated gasoline was formulated to help reduce ground-level ozone concentrations and contains at least 2% oxygen, has a reduced content of benzene and other aromatic compounds, and produces limited emissions of total air toxics. The introduction of fuels containing oxygenates elicited concerns from workers and the general public in some areas, including reports of unpleasant odors, headaches, or other symptoms attributed to the fuels, and questions about their effects on the cost of gasoline, the performance of engines, and fuel economy. This Special Report summarizes an intensive review of (1) the existing science of the health effects of oxygenates, (2) the risk evaluations done by the EPA in 1993 and 1994, and (3) in a qualitative way, the health effects of exposure to the new additives as they relate to the health effects of other pollutants whose levels in emissions change when fuels containing oxygenates are used.

Theoretical Approaches to Analyzing Complex Mixtures

Health Effects Institute
February 1996
Communication 4

Communication 4 contains four reports on analyzing complex mixtures. Three reports address analytical approaches to indentifying toxic compounds. One describes statistical approaches to analysis of interaction. (1) Immunoaffinity Chromatography in the Analysis of Toxic Effects of Complex Mixtures, William E. Bechtold (2) Stationary-Phase Programming for Liquid Chromatography: A New Concept for Separating Complex Mixtures, John G. Dorsey (3) Supercritical Separation and Molecular Bioassay Technologies Applied to Complex Mixtures, David L. Springer (4) Using the Parallel Coordinate Axis System to Analyze Complex Mixtures: Determining Biological Activity and Interactions Among Components, Chris Gennings.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part III: Examination of Possible Target Genes

Steven A Belinsky
Charles E Mitchell
Kristen J Nikula
Deborah S Swafford
December 1995
Research Report 68-III

In Part III of this study, Dr. Belinsky and his associates at the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute examined lung tumors from rats that had inhaled high concentrations of diesel engine exhaust or carbon black particles (see Part I by Dr. Joe Mauderly). The investigators applied molecular biology techniques to measure mutations in selected genes in the DNA from the tumors.

Pulmonary Toxicity of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Chronically Exposed Rats. Part II: DNA Damage

Kurt Randerath
Kim L Putnam
Joe L Mauderly
Paige L Williams
Erika Randerath
December 1995
Research Report 68-II

Dr. Randerath's study was part of a large cancer bioassay conducted by Dr. Joe Mauderly and colleagues of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI). The investigators exposed F344/N rats by inhalation to clean (filtered) air or to one of two concentrations of either diesel exhaust or carbon (2.5 or 6.5 mg of particles/m3 of test atmosphere). Both Dr. Randerath and Dr. Mauderly measured DNA adducts in lung tissue samples from rats exposed at ITRI for different periods of time to the test atmospheres. Dr.

DNA Adduct Formation and T-Lymphocyte Mutation Induction in F344 Rats Implanted with Tumorigenic Doses of 1,6-Dinitropyrene

Frederick A Beland
October 1995
Research Report 72

Dr. Beland and his associates at the University of Arkansas School of Medical Sciences developed an assay to measure mutations induced by dinitropyrenes, a class of diesel engine exhaust, in rats. The investigators analyzed the mutations in a selected gene in spleen T lymphocytes from rats treated with 1,6-dinitropyrene under conditions that induced lung tumors at the highest dose tested. They also examined DNA adduct levels in lung and liver tissues and in spleen lymphocytes and white blood cells.

Activation of Eicosanoid Metabolism in Human Airway Epithelial Cells by Products of Ozonolysis in Membrane Fatty Acids

George D Leikauf
Qiyu Zhao
Shaoying Zhou
Jeffrey Santrock
September 1995
Research Report 71

Dr. Leikauf and colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center examined the potential of the secondary products produced from the reaction of ozone with the fluids and the cell membrane of airway epithelial cells to cause biochemical effects. The investigators prepared aldehydes and hydroxyhydroperoxides of different carbon chain lengths. They tested these compounds and hydrogen peroxide in cultures of human airway epithelial cells grown from tissue explants.

Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: The Phase I Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. Phase I.A: Replication and Validation of Selected Studies

Health Effects Institute
August 1995
Special Report

The Phase I.A Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.A, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) reconstructed from original sources the data set for Philadelphia used in earlier studies and confirmed previous numerical results from analyzing these data; (2) developed an analytic approach (including new statistical methods) based on the Philadelphia data set; and (3) applied this approach to data sets for six locations: Philadelphia; Utah Valley; St. Louis, MO; Eastern Tennessee; Birmingham, AL; and Santa Clara County, CA.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part VI: Background and Study Design

Gary A Boorman
Paul J Catalano
Bernard J Jacobson
Debra A Kaden
Paul W Mellick
Kathleen M Nauss
Lousie M Ryan
August 1995
Research Report 65-VI

In 1987, the Health Effects Institute entered into a partnership with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to evaluate the effects of prolonged ozone exposure on F344/N rats. The NTP studies focused on carcinogenicity, while HEI supported eight studies that addressed the biochemical, functional, and structural endpoints and a biostatistical study that developed a sample allocation design and helped to integrate the research findings.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part XI: Integrative Summary

Paul J Catalano
Ling-Yi Chang
Jack R Harkema
Debra A Kaden
Jerold A Last
Paul W Mellick
William C Parks
Kent E Pinkerton
Bhandaru Radhakrishnamurthy
Louise M Ryan
John L Szarek
April 1995
Research Report 65-XI

In 1987, the Health Effects Institute entered into a partnership with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to evaluate the effects of prolonged ozone exposure on F344/N rats. The NTP studies focused on carcinogenicity. HEI funded eight independent research studies, including investigations of lung biochemical constituents, structural and cellular changes, lung function, and nasal structure and function.

Diesel Exhaust: Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects

Health Effects Institute
April 1995
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Working Group. Diesel engine emissions have the potential to cause adverse health effects, including cancer and other pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is difficult to distinguish the potential health risks attributable to exposure to diesel exhaust from those attributable to other air pollutants. For over a decade, HEI has supported a broad-based research program to evaluate the health risks of diesel emissions, including investigations of carcinogenesis, modeling studies, and emissions characterization. The purpose of this Special Report is to examine what is known, not known, and still uncertain about the health risks of exposure to diesel emissions.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Parts VIII and IX

Ling-Yi Chang
Kent E Pinkerton
March 1995
Research Report 65-VIII & IX

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. In this report, two of studies and in the NTP/HEI Collaborative Ozone Project, were conducted to determine whether prolonged inhalation of ozone produces lasting effects on lung structure, potentially contributing to or aggravating chronic lung disease. Drs. Chang and Pinkerton and their respective colleagues investigated the effects of this prolonged ozone exposure on respiratory tract structure in healthy male and female F344/N rats. 

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part X: Robust Composite Scores Based on Median Polish Analysis

Paul J Catalano
John Rogus
Louise M Ryan
January 1994
Research Report 65-X

One major component of urban smog is ozone, a highly reactive gas that forms when emissions from mobile and industrial sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight.  One concern is that prolonged ozone exposure could cause noncancerous lung diseases such as fibrosis and emphysema. The NTP's bioassay project presented a unique opportunity for a collaboration between the HEI and the NTP.

Oxidant and Acid Aerosol Exposure in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Asthma

Jane Koenig
Mark J Utell
November 1994
Research Report 70

In two separate studies, Drs. Koenig and Utell examined the effects of exposing healthy subjects and subjects with asthma to combined oxidant and acid pollutants. Each team of investigators conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols and standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig and colleagues exposed 28 adolescents with asthma to varying concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfuric acid. Dr. Utell and colleagues examined the effects of sequential exposures to sulfuric acid and ozone on pulmonary function in 30 subjects with asthma and 30 healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 45. 

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part VII: Effects on the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus

Jack R Harkema
Kevin T Morgan
Elizabeth A Gross
Paul J Catalano
William C Griffith
November 1994
Research Report 65-VII

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. The nose is the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens, dusts, and irritant gases; thus, changes induced by ozone in the normal functions of the nose could result in an increased susceptibility to respiratory infections and other diseases. In one of eight studies in the NTP/HEI Collaborative Ozone Project, Drs.

Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on F344/N Rats: Collaborative Studies. Part V: Effects on Pulmonary Function

Jack R Harkema
Joe L Mauderly
November 1994
Research Report 65-V

Ozone is the major pollutant in smog. It is formed by complex photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. Motor vehicle and industrial emissions are prominent sources of these compounds. Peak atmospheric ozone concentrations generally occur during the summer months because the photochemical reactions that produce ozone are enhanced by sunlight and high temperature.