This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 276 - 300 of 334. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.

Oxidant Injury to the Alveolar Epithelium: Biochemical and Pharmacologic Studies

Bruce A Freeman
Peter C Panus
Sadis Matalon
Barbara J. Buckley
R Randall Baker
Research Report 54

Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are significant outdoor and indoor air pollutants that can cause lung damage. Both are termed oxidant gases because the oxygen atoms they contain react with a variety of lung components and produce injury. Dr. Bruce Freeman and colleagues at the University of Alabama, Birmingham examined oxidant injury to alveolar epithelial cells and tested whether supplementing the levels of antioxidants would modify the cells' resistance to damage.

Use of Physical Chemistry and in Vivo Exposure to Investigate the Toxicity of Formaldehyde Bound to Carbonaceous Particles in the Murine Lung

George J Jakab
Terence H Risby
David R Hemenway
Research Report 53

Dr. George Jakab and associates the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health examined the effects of inhaled formaldehyde, an airway irritant that is part of motor vehicle emissions, on alveolar macrophages. The investigators exposed mice to varying levels of formaldehyde alone or to formaldehyde mixed with carbon black particles. Carbon black particles were chosen because of their similarity to combustion derived particles. Different alveolar macrophage functions were evaluated using two assays.

Carbon Monoxide Exposure of Subjects with Documented Cardiac Arrhythmias

Bernard R Chaitman
Thomas E Dahms
Sheila Byers
Lisa W Carroll
Liwa T Younis
Robert D Wiens
Research Report 52

Drs. Chaitman and coworkers at the St. Louis University School of Medicine examined whether there is a link between carbon monoxide exposure and arrhythmias in subjects with coronary artery disease. Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant. It is found in cigarette smoke and emissions from motor vehicles, industrial processes, and poorly ventilated combustion sources. The investigators studied 25 men and 5 women, aged 45 to 77 years, all of whom were nonsmokers with stable coronary artery disease and who had moderate levels of ventricular arrhythmias.

Effects of Formaldehyde on Xenotransplanted Human Respiratory Epithelium

Andres JP Klein-Szanto
Hitoshi Ura
Shigeru Momiki
Daniel Bonfil
Samuel Litwin
Research Report 51

Dr. Klein-Szanto and colleagues at the Fox Chase Cancer Center employed a novel exposure system to explore the capacity of formaldehyde to cause cancerous changes in human epithelial cells. Formaldehyde is classified as a toxic air pollutant and is emitted in exhaust of motor vehicles, but whether or not formaldehyde is injurious to human health is controversial. The investigators obtained autopsy samples from human infant airways and from adult nasal tissue.

New Methods in Ozone Toxicology: Abstracts of Six Pilot Studies

Health Effects Institute
Communication 1

HEI Communications 1 contains abstracts for six feasibility studies that were funded under RFA 89-2: Health Effects of Chronic Ozone Inhalation: Collaborative National Toxicology Program–Health Effects Institute Studies: Pilot Studies.

The Role of Ozone in Tracheal Cell Transformation

David G Thomassen
Jack R Harkema
James D Sun
Nicole D Stephens
William C Griffith
Research Report 50

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. When inhaled, ozone can cause cough, shortness of breath, and transient changes in breathing patterns; however the health significance of these effects is unknown. Dr. David Thomassen and coworkers examined the ability of ozone to alter the structure and growth characteristics of epithelial cells from rat tracheas in ways consistent with precancerous changes.

Mechanisms of Aldehyde-Induced Bronchial Reactivity: Role of Airway Epithelium

George D Leikauf
Research Report 49

Dr. George Leikauf and coworkers at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center examined the mechanism by which aldehyde inhalation can alter breathing patterns and damage cells lining the airways. Emissions from motor vehicles using gasoline and diesel fuels add to the outdoor levels of aldehydes, including formaldehyde and acrolein, which are known irritants of the respiratory tract. The investigators prposed to examine whether airway constriction due to exposure to aldehydes is caused by damage to airway cells, by the entry of white blood cells into the lungs, or both.

Effects of Ozone Exposure on Airway Epithelial Permeability and Ion Transport

Philip A Bromberg
Venkatachalam Ranga
M Jackson Stutts
Research Report 48

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. When inhaled, ozone can cause cough, shortness of breath, and transient changes in breathing patterns; however the health significance of these effects is unknown. Dr. Philip Bromberg and coworkers at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill examined whether exposure to ozone alters properties of the airway epithelium.

Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis: A Model to Study Effects of Oxidants

Jerry K Davis
Maureen Davidson
Trenton R Schoeb
Research Report 47

Nitrogen dioxide is an ubiquitous air pollutant resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. When inhaled at high levels, it reacts with and damages lung cells, including those cells that fight infection. This damage can affect breathing and may increase the risk of respiratory infections. Dr. J.K. Davis and his colleagues at the University of Alabama, Birmingham examined whether exposure to lower levels of nitrogen dioxide (less than 5 ppm) compromises mouse lung defense.

Role of Ring Oxidation in the Metabolic Activation of 1-Nitropyrene

Frederick A Beland
Research Report 46

Nitropyrenes are a class of chemicals found in diesel engine exhaust that can form DNA adducts and are suspected animal carcinogens. Dr. Beland at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences examined the relationship between DNA adducts and cancer in laboratory animals treated with 1-nitropyrene, the major nitropyrene present in diesel engine exhaust. The investigator used state-of-the-art techniques to study DNA adducts formed from 1-nitropyrene under different conditions of exposure, with an emphasis on identifying unique adducts that had not been recognized before.

The Effects of Exercise on Dose and Dose Distribution of Inhaled Automotive Pollutants

Michael T Kleinman
William J Mautz
Research Report 45

The human health effects that result from breathing air pollutants depend on the amount of pollutant inhaled from the air (exposure dose) and the amount of inhaled material that stays in the respiratory tract (retained dose). Because the retained dose of a pollutant may damage the respiratory tract and cause disease, it is a key factor for determining appropriate government regulations for air pollutants. Drs.

Leukocyte-Mediated Epithelial Injury in Ozone-Exposed Rat Lung

Kenneth Donaldson
Geraldine M Brown
David M Brown
Joan Slight
William M Maclaren
John MG Davis
Research Report 44

Ozone is a highly reactive gas that is a pervasive air pollutant at ground level. It is a major component of urban smog, forming when emissions from mobile and industrial sources interact with sunlight. When inhaled, ozone can cause cough, shortness of breath, and transient changes in breathing patterns; however the health significance of these effects is unknown. Drs. Kenneth Donaldson and coworkers at the Institute of Occupational Medicine examined whether exposure to ozone activates white blood cells to release substances that can damage lung tissue.

Effects of Methanol Vapor on Human Neurobehavioral Measures

Mary R Cook
Fred J Bergman
Harvey D Cohen
Mary M Gerkovich
Charles Graham
Roger K Harris
Linda G Siemann
Research Report 42

In this pilot study, Dr. Mary Cook and colleagues at the Midwest Research Institute explored how exposure to methanol vapor might affect the human nervous system. Methanol could be used as an alternative fuel, but it may lead to increased levels of methanol and formaldehyde in the atmosphere. The investigators exposed 12 young male volunteers to either filtered air or methanol vapor and assessed their response using 20 commonly used tests of sensory, behavioral, and reasoning performance before, during, and after each exposure.

Mechanisms of Nitrogen Dioxide Toxicity in Humans

Mark J Utell
Mark W Frampton
Norbert J Roberts Jr
Jacob N Finkelstein
Christopher Cox
Paul E Morrow
Research Report 43

Nitrogen dioxide is an ubiquitous air pollutant that can react with and damages lung cells when inhaled at high levels. Although outdoor and indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide are usually below the annual standard of 0.053 ppm, peaks can occur that reach up to 10 times this standard. Dr. Mark Utell and coworkers at the University of Rochester examined the human health impacts of higher (peak) levels of nitrogen dioxide that exceed the annual standard. The investigators exposed healthy, nonasthmatic, human volunteers to either nitrogen dioxide or filtered air for three hours.

Retention Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Rats and Humans

KJ Yoon
Research Report 40

This report describes a study by Drs. Yu and Yoon to mathematically predict the lung burden in rats and humans of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from automobile emissions. Building on a previously constructed model describing DEP deposition, the present work focused on clearance and retention of DEPs deposited in the lung. The transport rates of each component of DEPs were derived using experimental data and mathematical approximations. The complete model was first developed for rats and then extrapolated to humans of different age groups.

Effects of 4 Percent and 6 Percent Carboxyhemoglobin on Arrhythmia Production in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

David S Sheps
Margaret C Herbst
Alan L Hinderliter
Kirkwood F Adams
Lars G Ekelund
John J O'Neil
George M Goldstein
Philip A Bromberg
Martha Ballanger
Sonia M Davis
Gary Koch
Research Report 41

Dr. Sheps and colleagues assessed the effect of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) on ventricular arrhythmias in 41 nonsmoking human volunteers with coronary artery disease. On 3 consecutive days, volunteers were exposed in random order to air, 100 ppm CO (target 4% carboxyhemoglobin), and 200 ppm CO (target 6% carboxyhemoglobin), followed by a bicycle exercise test. Radionuclide cardiac ventriculography and ambulatory electrocardiogram were performed at rest and during exercise.

Noninvasive Determination of Respiratory Ozone Absorption: Development of a Fast-Responding Ozone Analyzer

James S Ultman
Abdellaziz Ben-Jebria
Research Report 39

This report describes a study by Drs. Ultman and Ben-Jebria to develop a chemiluminescent ozone analyzer and constructed an ozone bolus generator with the goal of using bolus concentration-response methods to noninvasively measure the longitudinal distribution of ozone absorption in human lungs. The analyzer was based on the chemiluminescent reaction between 2-methyl-2-butene and ozone. Validation of the system was performed in excised pig and sheep tracheas, and the resulting absorption coefficient was computed.

Asbestos in Public and Commercial Buildings

Health Effects Institute
Special Report

The Special Report Asbestos in Public and Commercial Buildings: A Literature Review and Synthesis of Current Knowledge (1991) describes the findings of the Asbestos Literature Review Panel, which was charged to determine what was known, not known, and uncertain about the risks of exposure to asbestos in public buildings.

Synergistic Effects of Air Pollutants: Ozone Plus a Respirable Aerosol

Jerold A Last
Research Report 38

This report describes a study by Dr. Last to investigate possible synergistic effects of multiple air pollutants on pulmonary measures in rats. Rats were exposed for 1-9 days to mixtures of O3 or NO2 and aerosols of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, or sodium chloride, and to each pollutant individually. Responses were evaluated by various biochemical and morphometric analyses of lung tissue and lavage fluid. An additional preliminary experiment treated exposed rats in vivo with various free-radical scavengers to elucidate possible protective properties.

Carbon Monoxide and Lethal Arrhythmias

Jay P Farber
Peter J Schwartz
Emilio Vanoli
Marco Stramba-Badiale
Gaetano M De Ferrari
Research Report 36

This report describes a study by Dr. Farber and colleagues to investigate the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on cardiac parameters in dogs. They tested dogs that developed ventricular fibrillation during a test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia (i.e. that were susceptible) and dogs that survived the test without fatal arrhythmias (i.e that were resistant). Susceptible and resistant dogs were exposed to a concentration of CO sufficient to raise carboxyhemoglobin levels to 5 – 15%.

Oxidant Effects on Rat and Human Lung Proteinase Inhibitors

David A Johnson
R Steve Winters
Kwan R Lee
Craig E Smith
Research Report 37

This report describes a study by Dr. Johnson and colleagues to test the hypothesis that inhaled oxidants can cause lung damage by inactivating the proteinase inhibitors that normally protect the lung from proteolysis. In the first set of experiments, the functional activity of rat alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (á1-PI) was measured in rat lung lavage fluid from rats exposed acutely or chronically to varying concentrations of NO2, diesel exhaust, O3, and O3 in conjunction with CO2.

Markers of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Railroad Workers

Marc B Schenker
Steven J Samuels
Norman Y Kado
S Katharine Hammond
Thomas J Smith
Susan R Woskie
Research Report 33

This report describes a study by Dr. Schenker and colleagues to investigate the usefulness of urinary mutagenicity as a biological marker of occupational diesel exhaust exposure. Personal exposure to diesel exhaust over 2 consecutive work shifts was monitored via personal air samplers in 87 railroad workers, with adjustment for first-hand and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Urine samples collected at the end of shifts were evaluated for mutagenicity and analyzed for any correlation with diesel exhaust exposure.

Acute Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Cardiac Electrical Stability

Richard L Verrier
Alex K Mills
William A Skornik
Research Report 35

This report describes a study by Dr. Verrier and colleagues to explore the effects of acute carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on cardiac electrical stability through a number of biological models. Experiments involved cardiac electrical testing of conscious and anesthetized dogs with normal and ischemic hearts who were exposed to CO for 2 or 24 hours. The experimental plan explored both the direct effects of CO exposure on the myocardium and possible indirect effects through alterations in the ability of platelets to aggregate or changes in nervous system activity.

Metabolic Activation of Nitropyrenes and Diesel Particulate Extracts

Alan M Jeffrey
Regina M Santella
Diana Wong
Ling-Ling Hsieh
Volker Heisig
George Doskocil
Soraya Ghayourmanesh
Research Report 34

This report describes a study by Dr. Jeffrey and colleagues to investigate the potential genotoxicity of components of diesel engine emissions using a variety of biological systems. In the first set of in vitro experiments, radiolabeled nitropyrenes were administered to DNA isolated from human bronchial tissue, mouse embryo fibroblasts, and rabbit tracheal tissue, and elution times were compared by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Antisera antibodies were also prepared against DNA modified by 1-nitrosopyrene to test for the presence of DNA adducts.

Respiratory Carcinogenesis of Nitroaromatics

Richard C Moon
Kandala VN Rao
Carol J Detrisac
Research Report 32

This report describes a study by Dr. Moon and colleagues to investigate the carcinogenic potential of 1-nitropyrene, a mutagenic constituent of diesel exhaust particles, using a hamster respiratory-carcinogenesis model. Male hamsters were exposed to 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene via intratracheal administration either once or twice a week for 92 weeks. In order to study activity as a cocarcinogen, 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene was administered in combination with 0.25 mg of the known environmental carcinogen benzo[α]pyrene once per week for 92 weeks.