Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

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Asbestos in Public and Commercial Buildings

Health Effects Institute
January 1991
Special Report

The Special Report Asbestos in Public and Commercial Buildings: A Literature Review and Synthesis of Current Knowledge (1991) describes the findings of the Asbestos Literature Review Panel, which was charged to determine what was known, not known, and uncertain about the risks of exposure to asbestos in public buildings.

Synergistic Effects of Air Pollutants: Ozone Plus a Respirable Aerosol

Jerold A Last
January 1991
Research Report 38

This report describes a study by Dr. Last to investigate possible synergistic effects of multiple air pollutants on pulmonary measures in rats. Rats were exposed for 1-9 days to mixtures of O3 or NO2 and aerosols of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, or sodium chloride, and to each pollutant individually. Responses were evaluated by various biochemical and morphometric analyses of lung tissue and lavage fluid. An additional preliminary experiment treated exposed rats in vivo with various free-radical scavengers to elucidate possible protective properties.

Carbon Monoxide and Lethal Arrhythmias

Jay P Farber
Peter J Schwartz
Emilio Vanoli
Marco Stramba-Badiale
Gaetano M De Ferrari
December 1990
Research Report 36

This report describes a study by Dr. Farber and colleagues to investigate the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on cardiac parameters in dogs. They tested dogs that developed ventricular fibrillation during a test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia (i.e. that were susceptible) and dogs that survived the test without fatal arrhythmias (i.e that were resistant). Susceptible and resistant dogs were exposed to a concentration of CO sufficient to raise carboxyhemoglobin levels to 5 – 15%.

Oxidant Effects on Rat and Human Lung Proteinase Inhibitors

David A Johnson
R Steve Winters
Kwan R Lee
Craig E Smith
December 1990
Research Report 37

This report describes a study by Dr. Johnson and colleagues to test the hypothesis that inhaled oxidants can cause lung damage by inactivating the proteinase inhibitors that normally protect the lung from proteolysis. In the first set of experiments, the functional activity of rat alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (á1-PI) was measured in rat lung lavage fluid from rats exposed acutely or chronically to varying concentrations of NO2, diesel exhaust, O3, and O3 in conjunction with CO2.

Markers of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Railroad Workers

Marc B Schenker
Steven J Samuels
Norman Y Kado
S Katharine Hammond
Thomas J Smith
Susan R Woskie
October 1990
Research Report 33

This report describes a study by Dr. Schenker and colleagues to investigate the usefulness of urinary mutagenicity as a biological marker of occupational diesel exhaust exposure. Personal exposure to diesel exhaust over 2 consecutive work shifts was monitored via personal air samplers in 87 railroad workers, with adjustment for first-hand and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Urine samples collected at the end of shifts were evaluated for mutagenicity and analyzed for any correlation with diesel exhaust exposure.

Acute Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Cardiac Electrical Stability

Richard L Verrier
Alex K Mills
William A Skornik
October 1990
Research Report 35

This report describes a study by Dr. Verrier and colleagues to explore the effects of acute carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on cardiac electrical stability through a number of biological models. Experiments involved cardiac electrical testing of conscious and anesthetized dogs with normal and ischemic hearts who were exposed to CO for 2 or 24 hours. The experimental plan explored both the direct effects of CO exposure on the myocardium and possible indirect effects through alterations in the ability of platelets to aggregate or changes in nervous system activity.

Metabolic Activation of Nitropyrenes and Diesel Particulate Extracts

Alan M Jeffrey
Regina M Santella
Diana Wong
Ling-Ling Hsieh
Volker Heisig
George Doskocil
Soraya Ghayourmanesh
July 1990
Research Report 34

This report describes a study by Dr. Jeffrey and colleagues to investigate the potential genotoxicity of components of diesel engine emissions using a variety of biological systems. In the first set of in vitro experiments, radiolabeled nitropyrenes were administered to DNA isolated from human bronchial tissue, mouse embryo fibroblasts, and rabbit tracheal tissue, and elution times were compared by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Antisera antibodies were also prepared against DNA modified by 1-nitrosopyrene to test for the presence of DNA adducts.

Respiratory Carcinogenesis of Nitroaromatics

Richard C Moon
Kandala VN Rao
Carol J Detrisac
April 1990
Research Report 32

This report describes a study by Dr. Moon and colleagues to investigate the carcinogenic potential of 1-nitropyrene, a mutagenic constituent of diesel exhaust particles, using a hamster respiratory-carcinogenesis model. Male hamsters were exposed to 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene via intratracheal administration either once or twice a week for 92 weeks. In order to study activity as a cocarcinogen, 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene was administered in combination with 0.25 mg of the known environmental carcinogen benzo[α]pyrene once per week for 92 weeks.

DNA Binding by 1-Nitropyrene and Dinitropyrenes in Vitro and in Vivo: Effects of Nitroreductase Induction

Frederick A Beland
November 1989
Research Report 31

This report describes a study by Dr. Beland to investigate the extents to which 1-nitropyrene and 1,6-dinitropyrene, two PAHs found in diesel exhaust, bind DNA in order to better understand the higher relative mutagenicity of 1,6-Dinitropyrene. DNA binding was determined in rats by assay of tissue isolated from a variety of organs. A subset of rats was pretreated with 1-nitropyrene to determine any effect on induction of nitroreductases and subsequent DNA binding by both nitropyrenes.

Acute Effects of Carbon Monoxide Exposure on Individuals with Coronary Artery Disease

Elizabeth N Allred
Eugene R Bleecker
Bernard R Chaitman
Thomas E Dahms
Sidney O Gottlieb
Jack D Hackney
Denise Hayes
Marcello Pagano
Ronald H Selvester
Sandra M Walden
Jane Warren
November 1989
Research Report 25

This report from the HEI Multicenter CO Study examined the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure of male human participants with coronary artery disease, with a particular focus on myocardial ischemia onset during exercise. The participants were exposed to air or to CO concentrations sufficient to elevate blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels to 2% or 4% during exercise. The primary health endpoints examined were the time to onset of exercise-induced angina, and the time to a predefined ST-segment change.

Influence of Experimental Pulmonary Emphysema on Toxicological Effects from Inhaled Nitrogen Dioxide and Diesel Exhaust

Joe L Mauderly
David E Bice
Yung S Cheng
Nancy A Gillett
Rogene F Henderson
John A Pickrell
Ronald K Wolff
October 1989
Research Report 30

This report describes a study by Dr. Mauderly and colleagues to examine the influence of preexisting pulmonary emphysema on adverse health effects induced by chronic exposure of rats to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) or NO2. Rats were exposed 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for 24 months to 9.5 ppm NO2 or 3.5 mg soot/m3 DEE. Prior to exposure, a subset of rats was instilled with the proteolytic enzyme elastase to induce pulmonary emphysema.

Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Infection: Pilot Investigations

Jonathan M Samet
John Spengler
September 1989
Research Report 28

This report describes two pilot investigations for a longitudinal study of infants designed to determine if NO2 exposure from cooking stoves increases the incidence or severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. In the first study, Drs. Samet and Spengler selected 147 households with electric or gas stoves and infants for home indoor monitoring of NO2 concentrations; the infants\' mothers completed a daily calendar-diary on respiratory symptoms and provided illness information every 2 weeks.

Early Markers of Lung Injury

John N Evans
David R Hemenway
Jason Kelley
September 1989
Research Report 29

This report describes a study by Dr. Evans and colleagues to develop an early marker of lung injury that changes in response to exposure to NO2, which is an important component of mobile source emissions. Rats were exposed to NO2 in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 30 ppm for 6 hours per day for periods ranging from 2 days to 4 weeks. Urine and bronchoalveloar lavage samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of the lung injury markers hydroxylysin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and desmosine.

Cardiovascular Effects of Chronic Carbon Monoxide and High-Altitude Exposure

James J McGrath
July 1989
Research Report 27

This report describes a study by Dr. McGrath to investigate the effect of chronic exposure of rats to CO at high altitude. Male rats were exposed for 6 weeks to CO ranging from 0 to 500 ppm at simulated altitudes ranging from 3,300 to 18,000 feet. The following weekly measurements were taken throughout the exposure period: weight, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin concentrations. Arterial pH, partial pressure of CO in the blood (PCO2) and PO2 were measured, as were blood pressure and ECG.

Investigation of a Potential Cotumorigenic Effect of the Dioxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and of Diesel-Engine Exhaust, on the Respiratory Tract of Syrian Golden Hamsters

Uwe Heinrich
Ulrich Mohr
Rainer Fuhst
Carsten Brockmeyer
May 1989
Research Report 26

This report describes a study by Dr. Heinrich and colleagues to investigate the effects of exposure to NO2 and SO2 or diesel engine exhaust on tumor formation in hamsters. Hamsters were exposed for 6, 10.5, 15, or 18 months to whole diesel exhaust, diesel exhaust without particles, or a mixture of NO2 and SO2. Additional groups of animals exposed to each test atmosphere were also injected with 3 or 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine/kg body weight to evaluate any enhancing effect of diethylnitrosamine on exposure-related changes.

Altered Susceptibility to Viral Respiratory Infection During Short-Term Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide

Richard M Rose
Paula Pinkston
William A Skornik
March 1989
Research Report 24

This report examined the effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on the sensitivity of the lower respiratory tract to viral infection and reinfection. Dr. Rose and colleagues exposed mice to concentrations of nitrogen dioxide ranging from 1-10 ppm or to air prior to and after inoculation with varying doses of murine cytomegalovirus. A subset of mice was reinfected 30 days later. Infection status, macrophage phagocytic uptake, lymphocyte function, and virus-specific antibody levels were measured, and the results were compared by exposure condition.

Detection of Paracrine Factors in Oxidant Lung Injury

Keith A Tanswell
February 1989
Research Report 22

This report addressed the hypothesis that hypertrophy of the lung after oxidant injury with ozone or oxygen is due to local generation of lung-specific growth factors. Dr. Tanswell exposed rats to either 85% oxygen, 1 ppm ozone, or air for up to two weeks while samples of plasma, lung washings, and lung tissue were periodically collected. These samples were tested for their effect on the DNA synthesis of purified populations of three major lung cell types (pneumocyte, fibroblast, and endothelial cell) in culture.

Responses of Susceptible Subpopulations to Nitrogen Dioxide

Paul E Morrow
Mark J Utell
February 1989
Research Report 23

This report investigated changes in pulmonary function, as well as the occurrence of symptoms, in potentially susceptible human subpopulations exposed to nitrogen dioxide. Drs. Morrow and Utell exposed healthy individuals and individuals with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory infection to air or 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide. The exposure period (four hours per day for five consecutive days) included defined periods of moderate exercise and pulmonary function measurements including spirometry, airway conductance, airway reactivity, and symptoms.

Maximal Aerobic Capacity at Several Ambient Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide at Several Altitudes

Steven M Horvath
James W Agnew
Jeames A Wagner
John F Bedi
December 1988
Research Report 21

This report examined the interactive effects induced by exposure to altitude and carbon monoxide. Dr. Horvath and colleagues exposed 23 healthy young human volunteers living at sea level to concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 150 ppm carbon monoxide in a hyperbaric chamber simulating altitudes of 55, 1,524, 2,134, or 3, 048 meters above sea level. Maximal aerobic capacity tests were performed under each exposure condition while respiratory and cardiac variables and blood levels of carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, and lactate were monitored.

Modulation of Pulmonary Defense Mechanisms Against Viral and Bacterial Infections by Acute Exposures to Nitrogen Dioxide

George J Jakab
November 1988
Research Report 20

This report investigated the influence of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide on susceptibility to and severity of viral and bacterial infection in mice. Dr. Jakab exposed normal and immunosuppressed mice to concentrations of nitrogen dioxide ranging from 1 to 30 ppm before or after bacterial or viral challenge and measured host resistance to infection by physiologic parameters.

Potential Health Effects of Manganese in Emissions from Trap-Equipped Diesel Vehicles

Health Effects Institute
September 1988
Special Report

The use of ceramic particulate traps, in conjunction with manganese fuel additives, has been viewed as a way to reduce emissions of particulate matter from diesel-fueled vehicles. This Special Report focuses on the potential health effects from increased public exposure to manganese emissions from such use.

Factors Affecting Possible Carcinogenicity of Inhaled Nitropyrene Aerosols

Ronald K Wolff
Edward Barr
James A Bond
Arthur F Eidson
William C Griffith
Fletcher F Hahn
Jack R Harkema
Rogene F Henderson
Charles E Mitchell
Simon J Rothenberg
George M Shopp
James D Sun
August 1988
Research Report 19

This report assessed in rats the carcinogenicity of inhaled 1-nitropyrene, a compound frequently adsorbed to diesel particulate matter, and whether this effect is modified when 1-nitropyrene is associated with particles or irritant gases. Dr. Wolff and colleagues exposed rats to atmospheres containing 14C radiolabeled 1-nitropyrene alone or in combination with gallium oxide, sulfur dioxide, or both. After exposure, tissue samples were analyzed for radiolabel content to determine the tissue distribution of 1-nitropyrene and its metabolites.

Respiratory Infections in Coal Miners Exposed to Nitrogen Oxides

Michael Jacobsen
Tom A Smith
J Fintan Hurley
Alastair Robertson
Ralph Roscrow
July 1988
Research Report 18

This report investigated the association of occupational exposure to nitrogen oxides with respiratory infections in British coal miners. Dr. Jacobsen and colleagues leveraged data from the Pneumoconiosis Field Research Study, a long-term epidemiological study of British coal miners with information for the years 1953-1978.

Studies on the Metabolism and Biological Effects of Nitropyrene and Related Nitro-polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Diploid Human Fibroblasts

Veronica M Maher
Joe Dale Patton
J Justin McCormick
March 1988
Research Report 17

This report describes a study by Dr. Maher and colleagues to investigate the biological effects of nitropyrene compounds, found in diesel emission particulate, on diploid human fibroblasts in culture in order to better evaluate potential health effects. Diploid human fibroblasts from normal individuals and individuals with a genetic predisposition to cancer were studied and compared through a series of experiments.

Metabolism and Biological Effects of Nitropyrene and Related Compounds

Charles M King
February 1988
Research Report 16

This report describes a study by Dr. King to investigate in rats the carcinogenetic properties of nitropyrene and related compounds and how these compounds are metabolically activated in target tissues. Nitropyrenes and related nitroaromatics are of interest because of their ubiquity in diesel emissions and reported carcinogenicity.