This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 281 - 290 of 294. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.

Neurotoxicity of Prenatal Carbon Monoxide Exposure

Laurence D Fechter
September 1987
Research Report 12

This report describes a study by Dr. Fechter to investigate the effect of prenatal and neonatal exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) on the developing rat brain. Groups of rats were exposed prenatally, or prenatally plus 10 days neonatally to take into account the fact that the developing rat brain is considerably less mature at birth than the primate brain. Consequently, rats were exposed to CO concentrations ranging from 75-300 ppm through the period of neuronal proliferation and into the period of synapse formation.

Effects of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide on Human Lung Proteinase Inhibitors

David A Johnson
August 1987
Research Report 11

Addressing the need for better assessment of human exposure to mobile source emissions, this report investigates proteinase inhibitor activity as a potential biomarker of oxidant exposure. In this study by Dr. Johnson, human participants were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for four hours on consecutive days and to concentrations ranging from 0.6-2 ppm nitrogen dioxide for three hours. Blood samples were obtained and the functional activity of the proteinase inhibitors, alpha-1-proteinase, and bronchial leukocyte proteinase was assessed.

Predictive Models for Disposition of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust Particles in Humans and Laboratory Species

July 1987
Research Report 10

Dr. Yu's project addressed several important issues regarding improved quantification of dose from known concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter. By focusing first on a specific category of automotive-derived particles, diesel exhaust particulate, Dr. Yu was able to characterize those aerosol properties (such as the mass medican aerodynamic diameter and size distribution) that influence regional deposition. After formulating a mathematical deposition model, Dr.

Biochemical and Metabolic Response to Nitrogen Dioxide-Induced Endothelial Injury

Jawaharlah M Patel
Edward R Block
June 1987
Research Report 9

Nitrogen dioxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Since NO2 is a reactive free radical, one postulated mechanism on NO2 pulmonary injury involves peroxidation of membrane lipids. Dr. Patel and colleagues at the University of Florida evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of NO2 exposure by measuring metabolic function, biochemical and biophysical parameters. The porcine pulmonary artery and aortic endothelial cells in monoculture cells were exposed to 3 or 5ppm of NO2 or air for 3-24 hours.

Automotive Methanol Vapors and Human Health: An Evaluation of Existing Scientific Information and Issues for Future Research

Health Effects Institute
May 1987
Special Report

Report of the Institute's Health Research Committee. This report summarizes what emissions-related health problems, if any, would emerge if methanol were to become more widely used as an automotive fuel. Methanol-fueled vehicles emit both formaldehyde and methanol vapors. in 1985, HEI started a research program to investigate the potential health effects of aldehydes, including formaldehyde. Before proceeding with research on methanol vapors, the HEI Health Research Committee decided to undertake additional analysis.

Effects of Inhaled Nitrogen Dioxide and Diesel Exhaust on Developing Lung

Joe L Mauderly
David E Bice
Robert L Carpenter
Nancy A Gillett
Rogene F Henderson
John A Pickrell
Ronald K Wolff
May 1987
Research Report 8

Previous research has reported that the lung development of animals exposed to oxidant gases early in life might be impaired, or that developing lungs might be more susceptible than adult lungs to inhaled toxicants. Dr. Mauderly and colleagues at the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute examined the age-related differences in the physiological responses of rats to inhaled automotive emissions. The younger group was exposed during gestation and through the age of six months, while the older group was exposed between the age of six and twelve months.

DNA Adducts of Nitropyrene Detected by Specific Antibodies

John D Groopman
April 1987
Research Report 7

Research Report 7 describes a study that attempted to produce monoclonal antibodies to DNA adducts of nitropyrene that could be used to study the mechanism of nitropyrene-induced carcinogenesis or develop analytical techniques for monitoring exposed populations. Dr. Groopman immunized mice against nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons conjugated with a carrier protein to study the progression of immune response. Dr. Groopman injected four antigens into groups of BALB/c, AJ, and NZB mice. Two of the antigens failed to produce any immune response.

Effect of Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone, and Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Metabolic and Pulmonary Function

Deborah M Drechsler-Parks
April 1987
Research Report 6

Dr. Drechsler-Parks and colleagues at the Institute of Environmental Stress sought to examine the effects of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function. Because it is possible that two or more pollutants could interact in ambient air and cause effects that could not be predicted from the effects observed with the individual pollutants, the investigators examined varying levels of different pollutants in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age).

An Investigation into the Effect of a Ceramic Particle Trap on the Chemical Mutagens in Diesel Exhaust

Susan T Bagley
Linda D Dorie
David G Leddy
John H Johnson
January 1987
Research Report 5

Dr. Bagley and colleagues at Michigan Technical University examined the chemical mutagenic effects of a ceramic particle trap on a medium-duty diesel engine. Diesel exhaust particles and vapor phase samples were collected from diluted (15:1) exhaust of a 10.4L displacement Caterpillar 3208 engine. The investigators compared uncontrolled (baseline) emissions with exhaust that had been modified by the use of an uncatalyzed monolithic ceramic trap.

The Metabolic Activation and DNA Adducts of Dinitropyrenes

Frederick A Beland
August 1986
Research Report 4

Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental contaminants that often contain genotoxic activity. Dinitropyrenes are a class of PAHs that are associated with diesel exhaust. In this study, Dr. Beland and colleagues at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences sought to determine what factors contribute to the extreme genotoxicity of dinitropyrenes in bacteria and to establish if the same factors were important for the genotoxicity of dinitropyrenes in mammalian systems.