Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 171 - 180 of 324. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


A Personal Particle Speciation Sampler

Susanne Hering
Nathan Kreisberg
Walter John
February 2003
Research Report 114

Dr. Susanne Hering of Aerosol Dynamics Inc and her colleagues set out to design and validate a personal monitoring sampler for particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) that is suitable for subsequent chemical speciation work. The sampler intended to meet the measurement needs for PM2.5 mass concentration and several of its major constituents including elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates.

Benzene Metabolism in Rodents at Doses Relevant to Human Exposure from Urban Air

Kenneth W Turteltaub
Chitra Mani
February 2003
Research Report 113

Drs Turteltaub and Mani at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigated benzene metabolism in rodents over a large dose range that encompassed concentrations close to those of human ambient exposure. Understanding benzene metabolism at low exposure levels is critical to benzene assessment to determine the shape of the dose-response curve at low concentrations.The investigators administered radioactive benzene to mice and rats and subsequently analyzed bone marrow, liver, urine, and plasma from these animals.

Particle Characteristics Responsible for Effects on Human Lung Epithelial Cells

Ann E Aust
James C Ball
Autumn A Hu
JoAnn S Lighty
Kevin R Smith
Ann M Straccia
John M Veranth
Willie C Young
December 2002
Research Report 110

Dr. Aust and her colleagues at Utah State University and Ford Motor company hypothesized that transition metals (metals that can participate in possibly toxic oxidative reactions) associated with particulate matter are released within lung epithelial cells and catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. The investigators focused their study on coal fly ash that was produced in the laboratory and separated into four size fractions.

Effect of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation Parameters in Rats

Christine Nadziejko
Kaijie Fang
Lung Chi Chen
Beverly Cohen
Margaret Karpatkin
Arthur Nádas
October 2002
Research Report 111

Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine evaluated the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators measured platelet number, blood cells counts, and levels of fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and factor VII of rats that were exposed to concentrated New York City particles and filtered air for 6 hours. Blood samples were obtained before and after exposure using an indwelling catheter.

Ozone-Induced Modulation of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Guinea Pigs

Richard B Schlesinger
Mitchell Cohen
Terry Gordon
Christine Nadziejko
Judith T Zelikoff
Maureen Sisco
Jean F Regal
Margaret G Ménache
June 2002
Research Report 109

Dr. Schlesinger and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine used a well-established animal model of airway hyperresponsiveness (a heightened tendency of the bronchial airways to constrict) and allergic asthma to determine whether ozone can induce airway hyperresponsiveness or exacerbate existing airway hyperresponsiveness. Male and female guinea pigs were exposed to ozone concentrations comparable to levels to which humans are exposed during periods of ozone pollution.

Case-Cohort Study of Styrene Exposure and Ischemic Heart Disease

Genevieve M Matanoski
Xuguang Tao
May 2002
Research Report 108

Drs. Matanoski and Tao at Johns Hopkins University examined the relationship between styrene exposure and heart disease in workers in styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing plants between 1943 and 1982. Workers who had died from ischemic heart disease were compared to a subgroup of all men employed in two styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing plants during that time. Individual exposure histories were determined from job records, or constructed using a statistical method to estimate exposure when records were missing.

Research Directions to Improve Estimates of Human Exposure and Risk from Diesel Exhaust

Health Effects Institute
April 2002
Special Report

A Special Report of the Institute's Diesel Epidemiology Working Group. The Diesel Epidemiology Working Group was formed in the fall of 2000 to (1) review reports from 6 diesel feasibility studies funded by HEI to provide information on potential study populations and on exposure assessment methods; and (2) consider the results of the feasibility studies and other ongoing research in order to develop a new research agenda to seek better information for quantitative risk assessment of lung cancer and other chronic diseases that may result from exposure to diesel exhaust. The 6 feasibility studies described in this report were funded by HEI to provide insight about whether a new retrospective or prospective epidemiologic study could provide data to improve estimates of cancer risk from exposure to diesel exhaust, and about whether new methods of exposure analysis would allow us to reevaluate older epidemiologic studies.

Understanding the Health Effects of Components of the Particulate Matter Mix: Progress and Next Steps

Health Effects Institute
April 2002
Perspectives 2

Perspectives 2 is the second of a series produced by the HEI Health Review Committee to integrate findings across several HEI studies or entire research programs. The intent is to describe and interpret results bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience interested in environmental health.

Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Engines Measured in Highway Tunnels

Alan W Gertler
et al.
Daniel Grosjean
et al.
January 2002
Research Report 107

This report describes two studies that measured emissions in roadway tunnels. Dr. Alan Gertler and colleagues at the Desert Research Institute studied particulate matter emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel located on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Dr Daniel Grosjean and colleague at DGA, Inc studied carbonyl emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel and in the Caldecott Tunnel in California. The unique environment in tunnel studies allows the investigators to measure emission rates averaged over many vehicles, to determine the physical and chemical character of emissions under ambient conditions, and in some instances to compare current emissions with past emissions at the same location. Both groups of investigators also measured emissions at times when the proportions of gasoline engine vehicles and diesel engine vehicles differed, allowing them to estimate the differences between emissions from the two sources.

Pathogenomic Mechanisms for Particulate Matter Induction of Acute Lung Injury and Inflammation in Mice

George D Leikauf
Susan A McDowell
Scott C Wesselkamper
Clay R Miller
William D Hardie
Kelly Gammon
Pratim P Biswas
Thomas R Korfhagen
Cindy J Bachurski
Jonathan S Wiest
Klaus Willeke
Eula Bingham
John E Leikauf
Bruce J Aronow
et al.
December 2001
Research Report 105

Dr. Leikauf and colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center hypothesized that the response of mice exposed to high concentrations of inhaled nickel particles was under genetic control. Using nickel, a transition element shown to cause adverse effects at high concentrations in ambient air, the investigators sought to identify the genes involved in controlling the inflammatory and toxic effects of continuous exposure to nickel particles.