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Asbestos in Public and Commercial Buildings

Health Effects Institute
January 1991
Special Report

The Special Report Asbestos in Public and Commercial Buildings: A Literature Review and Synthesis of Current Knowledge (1991) describes the findings of the Asbestos Literature Review Panel, which was charged to determine what was known, not known, and uncertain about the risks of exposure to asbestos in public buildings.

Synergistic Effects of Air Pollutants: Ozone Plus a Respirable Aerosol

Jerold A Last
January 1991
Research Report 38

This report describes a study by Dr. Last to investigate possible synergistic effects of multiple air pollutants on pulmonary measures in rats. Rats were exposed for 1-9 days to mixtures of O3 or NO2 and aerosols of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, or sodium chloride, and to each pollutant individually. Responses were evaluated by various biochemical and morphometric analyses of lung tissue and lavage fluid. An additional preliminary experiment treated exposed rats in vivo with various free-radical scavengers to elucidate possible protective properties.

Carbon Monoxide and Lethal Arrhythmias

Jay P Farber
Peter J Schwartz
Emilio Vanoli
Marco Stramba-Badiale
Gaetano M De Ferrari
December 1990
Research Report 36

This report describes a study by Dr. Farber and colleagues to investigate the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on cardiac parameters in dogs. They tested dogs that developed ventricular fibrillation during a test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia (i.e. that were susceptible) and dogs that survived the test without fatal arrhythmias (i.e that were resistant). Susceptible and resistant dogs were exposed to a concentration of CO sufficient to raise carboxyhemoglobin levels to 5 – 15%.

Oxidant Effects on Rat and Human Lung Proteinase Inhibitors

David A Johnson
R Steve Winters
Kwan R Lee
Craig E Smith
December 1990
Research Report 37

This report describes a study by Dr. Johnson and colleagues to test the hypothesis that inhaled oxidants can cause lung damage by inactivating the proteinase inhibitors that normally protect the lung from proteolysis. In the first set of experiments, the functional activity of rat alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (á1-PI) was measured in rat lung lavage fluid from rats exposed acutely or chronically to varying concentrations of NO2, diesel exhaust, O3, and O3 in conjunction with CO2.

Markers of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Railroad Workers

Marc B Schenker
Steven J Samuels
Norman Y Kado
S Katharine Hammond
Thomas J Smith
Susan R Woskie
October 1990
Research Report 33

This report describes a study by Dr. Schenker and colleagues to investigate the usefulness of urinary mutagenicity as a biological marker of occupational diesel exhaust exposure. Personal exposure to diesel exhaust over 2 consecutive work shifts was monitored via personal air samplers in 87 railroad workers, with adjustment for first-hand and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Urine samples collected at the end of shifts were evaluated for mutagenicity and analyzed for any correlation with diesel exhaust exposure.

Acute Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Cardiac Electrical Stability

Richard L Verrier
Alex K Mills
William A Skornik
October 1990
Research Report 35

This report describes a study by Dr. Verrier and colleagues to explore the effects of acute carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on cardiac electrical stability through a number of biological models. Experiments involved cardiac electrical testing of conscious and anesthetized dogs with normal and ischemic hearts who were exposed to CO for 2 or 24 hours. The experimental plan explored both the direct effects of CO exposure on the myocardium and possible indirect effects through alterations in the ability of platelets to aggregate or changes in nervous system activity.

Metabolic Activation of Nitropyrenes and Diesel Particulate Extracts

Alan M Jeffrey
Regina M Santella
Diana Wong
Ling-Ling Hsieh
Volker Heisig
George Doskocil
Soraya Ghayourmanesh
July 1990
Research Report 34

This report describes a study by Dr. Jeffrey and colleagues to investigate the potential genotoxicity of components of diesel engine emissions using a variety of biological systems. In the first set of in vitro experiments, radiolabeled nitropyrenes were administered to DNA isolated from human bronchial tissue, mouse embryo fibroblasts, and rabbit tracheal tissue, and elution times were compared by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Antisera antibodies were also prepared against DNA modified by 1-nitrosopyrene to test for the presence of DNA adducts.

Respiratory Carcinogenesis of Nitroaromatics

Richard C Moon
Kandala VN Rao
Carol J Detrisac
April 1990
Research Report 32

This report describes a study by Dr. Moon and colleagues to investigate the carcinogenic potential of 1-nitropyrene, a mutagenic constituent of diesel exhaust particles, using a hamster respiratory-carcinogenesis model. Male hamsters were exposed to 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene via intratracheal administration either once or twice a week for 92 weeks. In order to study activity as a cocarcinogen, 1 or 2 mg of 1-nitropyrene was administered in combination with 0.25 mg of the known environmental carcinogen benzo[α]pyrene once per week for 92 weeks.

Acute Effects of Carbon Monoxide Exposure on Individuals with Coronary Artery Disease

Elizabeth N Allred
Eugene R Bleecker
Bernard R Chaitman
Thomas E Dahms
Sidney O Gottlieb
Jack D Hackney
Denise Hayes
Marcello Pagano
Ronald H Selvester
Sandra M Walden
Jane Warren
November 1989
Research Report 25

This report from the HEI Multicenter CO Study examined the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure of male human participants with coronary artery disease, with a particular focus on myocardial ischemia onset during exercise. The participants were exposed to air or to CO concentrations sufficient to elevate blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels to 2% or 4% during exercise. The primary health endpoints examined were the time to onset of exercise-induced angina, and the time to a predefined ST-segment change.

DNA Binding by 1-Nitropyrene and Dinitropyrenes in Vitro and in Vivo: Effects of Nitroreductase Induction

Frederick A Beland
November 1989
Research Report 31

This report describes a study by Dr. Beland to investigate the extents to which 1-nitropyrene and 1,6-dinitropyrene, two PAHs found in diesel exhaust, bind DNA in order to better understand the higher relative mutagenicity of 1,6-Dinitropyrene. DNA binding was determined in rats by assay of tissue isolated from a variety of organs. A subset of rats was pretreated with 1-nitropyrene to determine any effect on induction of nitroreductases and subsequent DNA binding by both nitropyrenes.