Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 231 - 240 of 296. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


Characterization of Particle- and Vapor-Phase Organic Fraction Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Particle Trap and Regeneration Controls

Susan T Bagley
Linda D Gratz
David G Leddy
John H Johnson
July 1993
Research Report 56

Devices have been developed to reduce particle emissions from vehicles with diesel engines, such as a trap that filters the particles from the exhaust. Periodically, the trap is cleaned (regenerated) by electric heating, thereby burning the particles before they can clog the trap. There is concern that potentially harmful chemicals associated with the particles may be emitted from the trap during normal use and regeneration. Dr.

Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Illness in Children, Part I: Health Outcomes, and Part II: Assessment of Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide

Jonathan M Samet
William E Lambert
June 1993
Research Report 58-I & II

This publications contains two reports by Drs. Jonathan M. Samet, John D. Spengler, and colleagues, who conducted a prospective investigation of 1,205 healthy infants living in homes with gas or electric stoves in Albuquerque, NM. Nitrogen dioxide exposures were carefully estimated from repeated measurements in multiple locations in the subjects' homes throughout the entire 18-month observation period. Respiratory illnesses were monitored prospectively using a surveillance system based on daily parental diaries of respiratory signs and symptoms. Parental reports of illness episodes were validated in a subset of the population by comparison with clinical diagnoses and microbiological testing. Potential confounding factors that influence respiratory infections were reduced by selecting subjects whose parents did not smoke or intend to use day-care services outside the home.

Research Priorities for Mobile Air Toxics

Health Effects Institute
June 1993
Communication 2

Communication 2 provides information to decision makers on research that is potentially capable of narrowing uncertainties related to the health effects of specific air toxics. This report is based on the Mobile Air Toxics Workshop held in Monterey, CA, December 4–6 1992.

Do Electric or Magnetic Fields Cause Adverse Health Effects?

Health Effects Institute
June 1993
Special Report

HEI's Research Plan to Narrow the Uncertainties. This report of the HEI Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research Planning Committee presents a 5-7 year research program intended to clarify whether or not there are adverse health effects from exposure of the public to EMF from electric power transmission, machinery, or household appliances.

Determination of the Atherogenic Potential of Inhaled Carbon Monoxide

Arthur Penn
May 1993
Research Report 57

Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant. It is found in cigarette smoke and emissions from motor vehicles, industrial processes, and poorly ventilated combustion sources. Dr. Penn and his colleagues at New York University Medical Center sought to determine whether chronic exposure to ambient levels of carbon monoxide is also a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis because this disease is the leading contributor to deaths by heart attack and stroke in the United States.

Noninvasive Methods for Measuring Ventilation in Mobile Subjects

J Dennis McCool
Jonathan M Samet
May 1993
Research Report 59

This document contains two reports by Drs. McCool and Samet and their colleagues who were funded to develop and test methods for measuring ventilation in freely mobile subjects at home or at work. Drs. Dennis McCool and Domyung Paek at the Memorial Hospital in Rhode Island measured ventilation with a body surface displacement (BSD) model. Each subject wore wide elastic bands containing coated wire coils around the chest and abdomen and had special magnets affixed to the breastbone and navel, which yielded data about their breathing patterns, breath frequency, and ventilation. In the second study, Dr. Jonathan Samet and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University wanted to develop methods for estimating ventilation from heart rate for future epidemiologic studies. They used the Heartwatch, a portable, commercial device combining a small transmitter worn on the subject's chest with a wristwatch-style receiver that records heart rate.

Mutations Induced by 1-Nitrosopyrene and Related Compounds During DNA Recombination by These Compounds

Veronica M Maher
Nitai P Bhattacharyya
M Chia-Miao Mah
Janet Boldt
Jia-Ling Yang
J Justin McCormick
March 1993
Research Report 55

Nitropyrenes, which form during diesel fuel combustion, cause mutations and are carcinogenic in some animals. Dr. Veronica Maher and colleagues at Michigan State University studied the effect of nitropyrene-DNA adducts on gene mutation. The investigators exposed a specific gene, in culture, to each of two nitropyrene derivatives. They then (1) compared the number of adducts formed by each derivative, (2) analyzed the chemical structure of the adducts, and (3) determined in which region of the DNA the adducts formed.

Oxidant Injury to the Alveolar Epithelium: Biochemical and Pharmacologic Studies

Bruce A Freeman
Peter C Panus
Sadis Matalon
Barbara J Buckley
R Randall Baker
January 1992
Research Report 54

Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are significant outdoor and indoor air pollutants that can cause lung damage. Both are termed oxidant gases because the oxygen atoms they contain react with a variety of lung components and produce injury. Dr. Bruce Freeman and colleagues at the University of Alabama, Birmingham examined oxidant injury to alveolar epithelial cells and tested whether supplementing the levels of antioxidants would modify the cells' resistance to damage.

Use of Physical Chemistry and in Vivo Exposure to Investigate the Toxicity of Formaldehyde Bound to Carbonaceous Particles in the Murine Lung

George J Jakab
Terence H Risby
David R Hemenway
October 1992
Research Report 53

Dr. George Jakab and associates the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health examined the effects of inhaled formaldehyde, an airway irritant that is part of motor vehicle emissions, on alveolar macrophages. The investigators exposed mice to varying levels of formaldehyde alone or to formaldehyde mixed with carbon black particles. Carbon black particles were chosen because of their similarity to combustion derived particles. Different alveolar macrophage functions were evaluated using two assays.

Carbon Monoxide Exposure of Subjects with Documented Cardiac Arrhythmias

Bernard R Chaitman
Thomas E Dahms
Sheila Byers
Lisa W Carroll
Liwa T Younis
Robert D Wiens
September 1992
Research Report 52

Drs. Chaitman and coworkers at the St. Louis University School of Medicine examined whether there is a link between carbon monoxide exposure and arrhythmias in subjects with coronary artery disease. Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant. It is found in cigarette smoke and emissions from motor vehicles, industrial processes, and poorly ventilated combustion sources. The investigators studied 25 men and 5 women, aged 45 to 77 years, all of whom were nonsmokers with stable coronary artery disease and who had moderate levels of ventricular arrhythmias.