Publications

This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 141 - 150 of 324. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.


Mobile-Source Air Toxics: A Critical Review of the Literature on Exposure and Health Effects

Health Effects Institute
2007
Special Report 16

A Special Report of the Institute's Air Toxics Review Panel. Special Report 16 summarizes the health effects of exposure to the 21 mobile-source air toxics (MSATs) defined by the 2001 EPA mobile-source rulemaking and critically analyzes the literature for a subset of seven MSATs (acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, naphthalene, and polycyclic organic matter). The report also assesses and summarizes research gaps and unresolved questions, as understood in the context of the current regulatory agenda. The report focuses on MSATs for which mobile sources are a sizable source of human exposure and for which existing data suggest that health effects might be observed at concentrations approaching those found in ambient air. For each MSAT, the following questions are addressed: (1) To what extent are mobile sources a significant source of exposure to this MSAT? (2) Does this MSAT affect human health? (3) Does this MSAT affect human health at environmental conditions?

Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II. Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species

Barbara J Turpin
Clifford P Weisel
Maria T Morandi
Steven Colome
Thomas Stock
Steven Eisenreich
Brian Buckley
et al.
2007
Research Report 130-II

The RIOPA project comprised three studies, one funded by the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) and two funded by HEI, that investigated seasonal concentrations of 16 VOCs, 10 carbonyls, and PM2.5 in homes in Los Angeles CA, Houston TX, and Elizabeth NJ. The project was jointly funded and reviewed by a Special Review Panel of the two organizations. It generated a rich database on concentrations of air toxics and PM2.5 in the personal breathing zone of 100 adults in each city as well as inside and outside their homes.

Internet-Based Health and Air Pollution Surveillance System

Scott L Zeger
Aidan McDermott
Francesca Dominici
Roger D. Peng
Jonathan Samet
2006
Communication 12

HEI Communication 12 describes a project by Dr Scott Zeger and colleagues at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health that was funded by HEI to make data and software from the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) available to the wider research and policy communities. This Communication contains the Project Report, which describes the Internet-Based Health and Air Pollution Surveillance System (iHAPSS), along with Comments from some members of the HEI Health Research and Review Committees and other experts who had used the data.

An Updated Study of Mortality Among North American Synthetic Rubber Industry Workers

Elizabeth Delzell
Nalini Sathiakumar
John Graff
Maurizio Macaluso
George Maldonado
Robert Matthew
2006
Research Report 132

This study by Dr. Elizabeth Delzell and colleagues is the first major update of the most extensive human study to date of potential carcinogenic effects of 1,3-butadiene (BD). The earlier study investigated mortality among the largest occupational group exposed to BD: 18,000 men employed in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) industry between 1944 and 1991. In the current study, these workers were followed for an additional 7 years and the effects of exposure to other compounds were evaluated.

Characterization of Metals Emitted from Motor Vehicles

James J Schauer
Glynis C Lough
Martin M Shafer
William F Christensen
Michael F Arndt
Jeffrey T DeMinter
June-Soo Park
2006
Research Report 133

To answer important questions about possible sources of metal exposure from both tailpipe and non-tailpipe emissions, Dr. James Schauer and his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin - Madison collected and characterized metals in fine and coarse particles from a variety of sources, including tailpipe emissions, dust from brake and tire wear, and roadway dust.

Characterization of Particulate and Gas Exposures of Sensitive Subpopulations Living in Baltimore and Boston

Petros Koutrakis
Helen H. Suh
Jeremy A Sarnat
Kathleen Ward Brown
Brent A Coull
Joel Schwartz
2005
Research Report 131

Dr. Koutrakis and his colleagues assessed the correlations between personal exposure to PM2.5 and gaseous copollutants and compare these measurements with those taken at central-site monitors. Three groups of possibly susceptible individuals (children, seniors, and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were recruited in two cities (Boston and Baltimore) in two seasons (summer and winter).

Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection Methods and Descriptive Analyses

Clifford P Weisel
Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Barbara J Turpin
Maria T Morandi
Steven Colome
Thomas H Stock
Dalia M Spektor
et al.
2005
Research Report 130-I

The RIOPA project comprised three studies, one funded by the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) and two funded by HEI, that investigated seasonal concentrations of 16 VOCs, 10 carbonyls, and PM2.5 in homes in Los Angeles CA, Houston TX, and Elizabeth NJ. The project was jointly funded and reviewed by a Special Review Panel of the two organizations. It generated a rich database on concentrations of air toxics and PM2.5 in the personal breathing zone of 100 adults in each city as well as inside and outside their homes.

National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part IV: Hierarchical Bivariate Time-Series Models—A Combined Analysis of PM10 Effects on Hospitalization and Mortality

Francesca Dominici
Antonella Zanobetti
Scott L Zeger
Joel Schwartz
Jonathan M Samet
2005
Research Report 094-IV

In Part IV of the Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), Dr Francesca Dominici and colleagues at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health addressed an important question resulting from the combined analysis of air pollution effects on mortality and on hospital admissions. Is the underlying true effect per unit PM10 on mortality (the mortality slope) of the same magnitude as the effect per unit PM10 on hospitalizations (the hospitalization slope) in a given city?

Particle Size and Composition Related to Adverse Health Effects in Aged, Sensitive Rats

Fletcher F Hahn
Edward Barr
Margaret G Ménache
JeanClare Seagrave
2005
Research Report 129

Dr. Hahn and colleagues systematically examined lung inflammation in young adult and old rats after inhalation of fine particles (< 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and ultrafine particles (< 0.1 µm in aerodynamic diameter) of different composition: relatively inert carbon and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), which contains the transition metal vanadium, known to cause toxic effects upon inhalation in humans in occupational settings. In addition, they examined the effect of a short-term increase (spike) in particle exposure concentration on inflammatory response.

Particulate Air Pollution and Nonfatal Cardiac Events

Annette Peters
et al.
Douglas W. Dockery
et al.
2005
Research Report 124

This report contains two studies, by Drs. Annette Peters and Douglas Dockery. Dr. Peters and her colleagues evaluated the association between nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and exposure to particulate matter just prior to the event. She asked 691 patients in hospitals in Augsburg, Germany who survived an MI to provide hourly details about their activities 4 days before MI onset. The investigators used a case-crossover analysis to determine whether exposure to pollutants was associated with onset of MI. Dr. Dockery and colleagues assessed the correlation between short-term increases in ambient concentrations of particulate matter and the risk of possibly life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The investigators studied 195 patients from Boston, MA who had either single or dual-chamber ICD's and used logistic regression models to determine whether exposure to air pollutants was associated with arrhythmias.