This page is a list of publications in reverse chronological order. Please use search or the filters to browse by research areas, publication types, and content types.

Displaying 51 - 60 of 288. Show 10 | 25 | 50 | 100 results per page.

Cardiorespiratory Biomarker Responses in Healthy Young Adults to Drastic Air Quality Changes Surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics

Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Tong Zhu
Howard Kipen
Guangfa Wang
Wei Huang
David Rich
Ping Zhu
Yuedan Wang
Shou-En Lu
Pamela Ohman-Strickland
Scott Diehl
Min Hu
Jian Tong
Jicheng Gong
Duncan Thomas
March 2013
Research Report 174

This report describes a study to evaluate a series of aggressive policies intended to reduce local and regional emissions in the greater Beijing metropolitan area leading up to and during the 2008 Olympics. Dr. Junfeng (Jim) Zhang of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and colleagues evaluated the impact of the likely changes in air pollution levels on cardiovascular responses in 125 healthy young participants before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. The investigators used mixed models and time-series methods to analyze associations between pollutant levels and biomarkers.

Selective Detection and Characterization of Nanoparticles from Motor Vehicles

Murray V Johnston
Joseph P Klems
Christopher A Zordan
M Ross Pennington
James N Smith
February 2013
Research Report 173

This report describes a study in which a nano aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS) was used to study composition of nanoparticles in real time near a major roadway intersection. Dr. Murray V. Johnston of the University of Delaware, Newark, and colleagues conducted a field test in Wilmington, Delaware, to evaluate performance of the instrument in a real-world setting and to assess whether it could aid in identifying the major source contributions to nanoparticle spikes and background levels, including distinguishing diesel from gasoline vehicles.

Update Winter 2013

Health Effects Institute
February 2013

Contents: Review of Ultrafine Particles Examines Wide Range of Health Studies; Timely Topics, Great City Highlight HEI Annual Conference; Tool Helps Identify Nanoparticles from Motor Vehicles; Air Pollution Controls During 2008 Beijing Olympics; Science Workshop to Inform European Union Policies; Study Finds Ambient Air Pollution Among Top Global Health Risks; ACES Emissions Testing and Animal Exposures Now Complete

Understanding the Health Effects of Ambient Ultrafine Particles

Health Effects Institute
January 2013
Perspectives 3

Perspectives 3 is the third of a series produced by HEI to describe and interpret results from HEI and other research bearing on important and timely issues for a broad audience interested in environmental health. Perspectives 3 focuses on the health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) and was developed under the guidance of a special HEI Review Panel. It examines the contribution of motor vehicles within the broader context of the multiple sources of ambient UFPs and explores the evidence from experimental studies in animals and in humans, as well as observational epidemiologic studies of people exposed to UFPs in the environment. It also identifies some of the broader lessons about both the specific health effects associated with exposure to UFPs and possible directions for future studies that could enhance our understanding of emissions, exposures, and effects of UFPs.

Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs

Thomas J Smith
Mary E Davis
Jaime E Hart
Andrew Blicharz
Francine Laden
Eric Garshick
December 2012
Research Report 172

This report describes a study that measured concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in locations with potentially high levels of air pollution that could make them "hot spots" for human exposure. Dr. Thomas Smith of the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues measured pollutant concentrations at upwind and downwind locations at the perimeter of the terminals, as well as inside truck cabs, at 15 truck terminals.

Accountability Analysis of Title IV Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

Richard D Morgenstern
Winston Harrington
Jhih-Shyang Shih
Michelle L Bell
November 2012
Research Report 168

This report describes a study that analyzed the relationships between reductions in pollutants from power plants and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the eastern United States between 1999 and 2005. Dr. Richard D. Morgenstern of Resources for the Future and colleagues used a novel data-driven source-receptor model to explore the statistical relationships between source emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides and monitored concentrations of PM2.5. They performed various external comparisons of their models, and compared the reductions to an estimated counterfactual scenario in which no mandated reductions in SO2 occurred.

Update Fall 2012

Health Effects Institute
November 2012

This update describes a new Diesel Epidemiology Project; a call for Research Proposals: Improving Traffic Exposure Analysis for Health Studies; the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study nearing completion; a new member of the Research Committee; a visit from Japanese Auto Officials; and two new Research Reports on Potential Air Toxics Hot Spots in Truck Terminals and Cabs and on the Impact of 1990 Hong Kong Limits on Sulfur Content in Fuel. 

Multicity Study of Air Pollution and Mortality in Latin America (The ESCALA Study)

Isabelle Romieu
Nelson Gouveia
Luis A. Cifuentes
and teams of investigators in Brazil, Chile and Mexico
October 2012
Research Report 171

This report describes the first-ever multicity study to estimate the effect of short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10) and to ozone on mortality in nine Latin American cities. Led by Dr. Isabelle Romieu in Mexico, in collaboration with Dr. Nelson Gouveia in Brazil and Dr. Luis Cifuentes in Chile, the researchers evaluated mortality from all causes and in different age groups, using a common analytic framework. They analyzed mortality in each city and the region as a whole, and explored two pollutant models in individual cities. They also used two meta-analytic statistical techniques to further analyze the effects from individual cities.

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Subchronic Exposure Results: Biologic Responses in Rats and Mice and Assessment of Genotoxicity

Jacob D McDonald
Jeffrey C Bemis
Lance M Hallberg
Daniel J Conklin
Maiying Kong
September 2012
Research Report 166

This report provides the first systematic look at the health effects of exposures to emissions from a new-technology heavy-duty diesel engine. Included in this report are results obtained in rats and mice exposed for 1 and 3 months (and some results in rats at 12 months) to exhaust from a 2007-compliant diesel engine with aftertreatment to reduce particulate matter concentrations. Part 1 describes the core inhalation study by Drs. Jake McDonald and Joe Mauderly of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, with results on general organ toxicity, lung histopathology, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in blood and lung lavage fluid. Parts 2 and 3 describe studies by Drs. Jeffrey Bemis of Litron Laboratories and Lance Hallberg of the University of Texas Medical Branch, respectively, assessing genotoxic endpoints in the exposed rodents. Part 4 describes a study of vascular markers by Daniel Conklin of the University of Louisville. The Preface to this report contains background information about the planning and designing of the study, including decisions regarding the diesel exhaust dilutions and the choice of rodent strains.

Impact of the 1990 Hong Kong Legislation for Restriction on Sulfur Content in Fuel

Chit-Ming Wong
Ari Rabl
Thuan Q Thach
Yuen Kwan Chau
King Pan Chan
Benjamin J Cowling
Hak Kan Lai
Tai Hing Lam
Sarah M McGhee
H Ross Anderson
Anthony J Hedley
August 2012
Research Report 170

This report describes a study to explore the role that specific chemical constituents of particulate air pollution may have played in effects on daily mortality observed after the 1990 Hong Kong restriction on sulfur in fuels. The study was part of HEI's Outcomes Research program, which aims to assess the health impacts of actions taken to improve air quality. Dr. Chit-Ming Wong of the University of Hong Kong and his team also developed methods to estimate the impacts on life expectancy of the 1990 sulfur restriction.