Multipollutant Mixtures

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Research Report 181
Stuart Batterman
Feng-Chiao Su
Shi Li
Bhramar Mukherjee
Chunrong Jia
June 2014

This report describes a study to identify factors that influence exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and VOC mixtures. Dr. Stuart Batterman at the University of Michigan–Ann Arbor and colleagues used the extensive data that HEI posted on the Web from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study (HEI Research Report 130 Parts I and II), and data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), to characterize exposure distributions for 15 VOCs, with an emphasis on high concentrations. Factors examined included geographic location, weather, characteristics of participants' homes, and specific activities, such as pumping gas.

Research Report 169
HEI Collaborative Working Group on Air Pollution, Poverty, and Health in Ho Chi Minh City
June 2012

This report describes a study to investigate the relationships among daily variations in air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, hospital admissions for acute lower respiratory infections in children under age 5, and poverty. The study was part of HEI's Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program and is the first study of air quality and health to be performed in Vietnam. The team of investigators, led by Drs. Le Truong Giang, Long Ngo, and Sumi Mehta, collected daily pollutant data for PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at multiple locations throughout the city and obtained admissions data from the two pediatric hospitals in HCMC. They then performed statistical analysis on the data using Poisson time-series and case–crossover methods.

Special Report 18
Health Effects Institute
November 2010

This comprehensive literature review to come out of HEI's Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program builds on an initial assessment conducted in 2004 and describes the current scope of the Asian literature on the health effects of outdoor air pollution, enumerating and classifying more than 400 studies. In addition, the report includes a systematic and quantitative assessment of 82 time-series studies of daily mortality and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory disease.

Research Report 139
Bert Brunekreef
Rob Beelen
Gerard Hoek
Leo Schouten
Sandra Bausch-Goldbohm
Paul Fischer
Ben Armstrong
Edward Hughes
Michael Jerrett
Piet van den Brandt
March 2009

Research Report 139 describes a study in the Netherlands using data from the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) on diet and cancer. The study is one of the first to systematically assess longer term exposure and mortality in a well characterized European population; it followed a pilot study of 5000 adults randomly selected from the NLCS cohort conducted by the same team of investigators. For the current study, Dr.

Research Report 131
Petros Koutrakis
Helen H Suh
Jeremy A Sarnat
Kathleen Ward Brown
Brent A Coull
Joel Schwartz
December 2005

Dr. Koutrakis and his colleagues assessed the correlations between personal exposure to PM2.5 and gaseous copollutants and compare these measurements with those taken at central-site monitors. Three groups of possibly susceptible individuals (children, seniors, and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were recruited in two cities (Boston and Baltimore) in two seasons (summer and winter).

Research Report 124
Annette Peters
et al.
Douglas W Dockery
et al.
June 2005

This report contains two studies, by Drs. Annette Peters and Douglas Dockery. Dr. Peters and her colleagues evaluated the association between nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and exposure to particulate matter just prior to the event. She asked 691 patients in hospitals in Augsburg, Germany who survived an MI to provide hourly details about their activities 4 days before MI onset. The investigators used a case-crossover analysis to determine whether exposure to pollutants was associated with onset of MI. Dr. Dockery and colleagues assessed the correlation between short-term increases in ambient concentrations of particulate matter and the risk of possibly life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The investigators studied 195 patients from Boston, MA who had either single or dual-chamber ICD's and used logistic regression models to determine whether exposure to air pollutants was associated with arrhythmias.

Research Report 100
Owen R Moss
Elizabeth A Gross
R Arden James
Derek B Janszen
Paul W Ross
Kay C Roberts
Andrew M Howard
Jack R Harkema
Lilian Calderon-Garciduenas
Kevin T Morgan
March 2001

Dr. Moss of CIIT evaluated the effects of rats exposed to ambient air in a highly polluted area in southwestern Mexico City. Pathologists have found evidence of cell damage and inflammation in nasal tissue from some human residents of this highly polluted area that was not present in people living in areas of the country with cleaner air and this study sought to determine if those effects could be replicated in rats.

Research Report 86
William Navidi
Duncan Thomas
Bryan Langholz
Daniel Stram
May 1999

Dr. Navidi and colleagues at the University of Southern California discussed the development of three sophisticated statistical methods that would improve the estimates of the health effects of air pollution obtained from epidemiologic studies. First, they took a standard case-crossover design and introduced a bidirectional element where control data were obtained both before and after the health event of interest.

Communication 4
Health Effects Institute
February 1996

Communication 4 contains four reports on analyzing complex mixtures. Three reports address analytical approaches to indentifying toxic compounds. One describes statistical approaches to analysis of interaction. (1) Immunoaffinity Chromatography in the Analysis of Toxic Effects of Complex Mixtures, William E. Bechtold (2) Stationary-Phase Programming for Liquid Chromatography: A New Concept for Separating Complex Mixtures, John G. Dorsey (3) Supercritical Separation and Molecular Bioassay Technologies Applied to Complex Mixtures, David L. Springer (4) Using the Parallel Coordinate Axis System to Analyze Complex Mixtures: Determining Biological Activity and Interactions Among Components, Chris Gennings.

Research Report 66
Paul C Howard
Frederick A Beland
May 1994

High doses of inhaled diesel engine exhaust produce lung tumors in laboratory animals and may cause cancer in humans. Nitropyrenes are products of diesel engine exhaust and can be activated by the body\'s metabolism to form highly reactive products that interact with DNA to form DNA adducts. The adducts can interfere with the normal processes of DNA replication and can lead to genetic mutations that may result in carcinogenesis. Dr.